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• Discussion sections start this week. You will take a short pre-concept test-bring a pencil (it will not influence your grade in the course). • First Faculty Fellows Dining with Students lunch tomorrow, Tuesday, Sept. 10, Noon, Jester City Limits. • Reminder: Lecture attendance is expected and to your benefit. I will take attendance periodically, as I did last Friday, and there will be graded lecture activities throughout the semester.

The Origin of Species
• A new era of biology began in 1859 when Charles Darwin published The Origin of Species. • The Origin of Species focused biologists’ attention on the great diversity of organisms. • And in fact, it is this knowledge of diversity that lead to the development of evolutionary theory and our understanding of the processes of evolution today.

The Origin of Species “The book that shook the world” “One long argument for evolution”
20 years in the making

• Darwin noted that current species are descendants of ancestral species. • Evolution can be defined by Darwin’s phrase descent with modification. • Evolution can be viewed as both a pattern and a process.

Lamarck publishes his hypothesis of evolution. Malthus publishes “Essay on the Principle of Population.”


Figure 22.2


Hutton proposes his principle of gradualism.


Cuvier publishes his extensive studies of vertebrate fossils.


Lyell publishes

Principles of Geology.

While studying species in the Malay Archipelago, Wallace (shown in 1848) sends Darwin his hypothesis of natural selection.



Charles Darwin Darwin travels around the world on HMS is born.



1859 On the Origin of Species is published.



Darwin writes his essay on descent with modification.

The Galápagos Islands

Afred Russel Wallace (1823-1913) • 1858 – Wallace sent letter to Darwin describing his theory of evolution • Naturalist & collector • Explored Amazon/South Pacific • Independently developed notion of natural selection and species change

Chapter 1: Variation under domestication
• Domestic species are variable • This variability is “heritable” • Small changes accumulate to make big differences • Breeders have made changes > than differences between species

Chapter 2: Variation in nature

• Things are the same way in nature • Population vs. typological approach • Variation is a natural state
• Variation makes taxonomy difficult

Chapter 3: The struggle for existence
• The “struggle for existence” & the tendency for population to increase • Competition and predation EVERYWHERE, variation can be related to success • Darwin calculated that 1 pair of elephants (very slow breeders) will leave 15 million descendents in 500 years • Thus, most individuals do not survive (or the planet would be overrun with elephants)

Chapter 4: Natural selection
“Can we doubt……that individuals having any advantage, however slight, over others, would have the best chance surviving and of procreating their kind? On the other hand, we may feel sure that any variation in the least degree injurious would be rigidly destroyed. This preservation of favorable variations and the rejection of injurious variations, I call Natural Selection”.

Chapter 4: Natural selection
• Discusses the potential strength of natural selection • Discusses the possibility of sexual selection

Variation, inheritance, and the struggle for existence inevitably lead to evolution

Descent with modification by natural selection explains the adaptations of organisms and the unity and diversity of life
• Some doubt about the permanence of species preceded Darwin’s ideas

Darwin’s Focus on Adaptation
• In reassessing his observations, Darwin perceived adaptation to the environment and the origin of new species as closely related processes. • From studies made years after Darwin’s voyage, biologists have concluded that this is what happened to the Galápagos finches.

Figure 22.6

(a) Cactus-eater

(b) Insect-eater

(c) Seed-eater

• In 1844, Darwin wrote an essay on natural selection as the mechanism of descent with modification, but did not introduce his theory publicly. • Natural selection is a process in which individuals with favorable inherited traits are more likely to survive and reproduce. • In June 1858, Darwin received a manuscript from Alfred Russell Wallace, who had developed a theory of natural selection similar to Darwin’s. • Darwin quickly finished The Origin of Species and published it the next year.

The Origin of Species
• Darwin explained three broad observations:
– The unity of life – The diversity of life – The match between organisms and their environment

Descent with Modification
• Darwin never used the word evolution in the first edition of The Origin of Species. • The phrase descent with modification summarized Darwin’s perception of the unity of life. • The phrase refers to the view that all organisms are related through descent from an ancestor that lived in the remote past.

• In the Darwinian view, the history of life is like a tree with branches representing life’s diversity. • Darwin’s theory meshed well with the hierarchy of Linnaeus.

Figure 22.7

Figure 22.8

Hyracoidea (Hyraxes) Sirenia (Manatees and relatives)

†Moeritherium †Barytherium


†Mammut †Platybelodon †Stegodon †Mammuthus

Elephas maximus

Loxodonta africana
(Africa) (Africa)
60 34 24 5.5 2 1040

Loxodonta cyclotis

Millions of years ago

Years ago

Recommended books

For next lecture
• Read Chap. 23 and answer: - What is a gene pool? - Define a biological population. - What is Hardy Weinberg equilibrium?