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PETE 406 UBD

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PETE 406 - Underbalanced Drilling, UBD
Lesson 9 Benefits of Underbalanced Drilling UDM - Chapter 3

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Benefits of Underbalanced Drilling
• • • • • • Increased Penetration Rate Increased Bit Life Reduced Differential Sticking Minimize Lost Circulation Improved Formation Evaluation Reduced Formation Damage
Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering

PETE 406 UBD

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PETE 406 UBD

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Benefits of Underbalanced Drilling
• • • • • • Reduced Probability of Differential Sticking Earlier Production Environmental Benefits Improved Safety Increased Well Productivity Less Need for Stimulation
Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering

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ATM PETE 406 UBD ATM Increased Penetration Rate • In permeable rocks. a positive differential will decrease penetration because – increases the effective confining stress which • increases the rocks shear strength • Therefore increasing shear stress (by drilling UB) increases penetration rate – and increases the chip hold down effect ATM Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering ATM .

ATM PETE 406 UBD ATM Chip hold down effect Bit tooth As drilling fluid enters the fracture. the pressure differential across the rock fragment decreases. releasing the chip Crack in the formation ATM Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering ATM .

ATM PETE 406 UBD ATM Effect of Pressure Differential • In permeable rocks penetration rate is a function of the differential pressure not the absolute pressure ATM Micro-bit test Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering ATM .

mud drilling Mud Gas ATM Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering ATM .ATM PETE 406 UBD ATM Gas drilling vs.

ATM Penetration rate as a function of the differential pressure across the workfront For permeable rocks PETE 406 UBD ATM ATM Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering ATM .

i. the penetration rate is now a function of absolute wellbore pressure.ATM PETE 406 UBD ATM Penetration rate in impermeable In impermeable rocks Bit tooth rock. the Crack in the formation instantaneous initial pressure in the crack itself is close to zero.e. ATM Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering ATM .

ATM Field example switching from air to mud PETE 406 UBD ATM Switch to mud ATM Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering ATM .

fewer bits ATM Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering ATM .ATM PETE 406 UBD ATM Increased Bit Life??? • Increased vibration with air drilling may actually decrease bearing life • Bit may drill fewer rotating hours but drill more footage .

is defined as the mechanical work that must be done to excavate a unit volume of rock ATM Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering ATM .ATM PETE 406 UBD ATM Effect of UBD on cutting structure of roller cone bits • Mechanical Specific Energy. MSE.

lb) ATM Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering ATM .ATM PETE 406 UBD ATM The work done by the bit is: WOB  ROP W  2  60RPM where τ  torque(ft .

ATM PETE 406 UBD ATM The volume of rock excavated per revolution is: V d  ROP 2 b 240RPM d b  bit diameter (feet) ATM Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering ATM .

ATM PETE 406 UBD ATM The mechanical specific energy is give by: 480  RPM 4WOB MSE   2 2 d b  ROP d b ATM Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering ATM .

ATM PETE 406 UBD ATM 480  RPM 4WOB MSE   2 2 d b  ROP d b 1. Penetration rates generally increase with decreasing borehole pressures. Bit torque is not a function of borehole pressures. MSE are therefore. 3. 2. usually lower at lower borehole pressures What does this mean? ATM Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering ATM .

If the bit has to do less work to remove a given volume of rock. its cutting elements should wear less. A bit should be able to drill more footage. 6. when drilling underbalanced. ATM Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering ATM . Therefore. cutting structure wear rates (in terms of distance drilled) should be inversely related to the MSE 5.ATM PETE 406 UBD ATM What does this mean? 4.

ft./sq. ft)  DP = pressure differential across the mud cake (psid)  ms = coefficient of friction Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering ATM ATM .ATM PETE 406 UBD ATM Reduced Differential Sticking • Fs = AcDPms*144 sq. • Fs = force required to free pipe (lbf) • Ac = contact area (sq.in.

200 lbf • Note equation 3.ATM PETE 406 UBD ATM Example • • • • Contact area is 30 feet long and 0.5 in text is incorrect ATM Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering ATM .3 The force to free the pipe (in excess of string weight) is • 30 x 0.25 ft wide Pressure differential is 300 psid The coefficient of friction is 0.3 x 144 = 97.25 x 300 x 0.

ATM PETE 406 UBD ATM Minimized Lost Circulation • If the pressure in the wellbore is less than the formation pressure in the entire open hole section. ATM Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering ATM . lost circulation will not occur.

ATM PETE 406 UBD ATM Improved Formation Evaluation • Production rates while drilling UB can be measured with no filtrate invasion occurring • No filtrate invasion can mean more accurate LWD measurements. ATM Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering ATM .

ATM PETE 406 UBD ATM Reduces formation damage ATM ATM .

ATM PETE 406 UBD ATM Formation damage mechanisms during drilling (overbalanced) • Scales. sludges or emulsions due to interaction between filtrates and pore fluids • Interaction between aqueous mud filtrate and clay particles in the formation • Solids invasion ATM Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering ATM .

leading to permeability reductions or changes in wettability • Migration of fines • Generation of pore-blocking organic byproducts from bacteria entering the formation from the drilling fluid ATM Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering ATM .ATM PETE 406 UBD ATM Formation damage mechanisms during drilling (overbalanced): • Phase trapping or blocking • Adsorption of drilling fluid additives.

ATM PETE 406 UBD ATM Formation damage mechanisms during drilling (underbalanced): • • • • • • Temporary overbalance Spontaneous imbibition Gravity-induced invasion Wellbore glazing Post-drilling damage Mechanical degradation Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering ATM ATM .

completion and WO operations ATM Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering ATM . log the well. transmit MWD surveys.ATM PETE 406 UBD ATM Temporary overbalance • Can be intentional to: – – – – kill well for trips.

ATM PETE 406 UBD ATM Temporary overbalance • Can be unintentional: – Slug flow or liquid holdup causing fluctuations in annular pressure – High fluid pressures across the face of diamond and TSP bits – Near wellbore production reduces the formation pressure near the face of the wellbore ATM Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering ATM .

ATM PETE 406 UBD ATM Temporary overbalance • Can be unintentional: – Varying pore pressure along the wellbore – Excessive surge pressures – Equipment malfunctions or procedural errors ATM Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering ATM .

even if drilling underbalanced • The underbalance pressure necessary to prevent water from being drawn from an aqueous drilling fluid into the formation will depend on the initial formation water saturation and the pore sizes ATM Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering ATM .ATM PETE 406 UBD ATM Spontaneous Imbibition • Due to capillary effects .

ATM PETE 406 UBD ATM Gravity-induced invasion • Can occur during UBD in the formation produces from natural fractures or vugs ATM Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering ATM .

ATM PETE 406 UBD ATM Wellbore glazing • UBD can result in high wellbore temperatures due to the friction between the rotating drillstring and the borehole wall. • This can cause a thin low permeability “glazed” zone ATM Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering ATM .

ATM PETE 406 UBD ATM Post-drilling damage • Due to: – – – – Killing the well for completion Cementing Mobilization of “fines” during production Liquid coning in gas reservoir ATM Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering ATM .

the effective stresses increase. • resulting in a decrease in porosity and available flow channels leading to • reduced permeability ATM Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering ATM . • As the wellbore pressure is lowered.ATM PETE 406 UBD ATM Mechanical degradation • Rock around the wellbore experiences a concentration of in-situ stresses due to drilling the well.

• Open-hole completions are sometimes performed. ATM Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering ATM . produced fluids can go to sales. wells from depleated reservoirs will not need swabbing.ATM PETE 406 UBD ATM Earlier Production • With the necessary equipment on location during UBD operations. • If the well is drilled and completed underbalanced.

ATM PETE 406 UBD ATM Environmental Benefits • Closed loop systems produce less wasted drilling fluids ATM Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering ATM .

stimulation to remove the damage will not be needed ATM Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering ATM .ATM PETE 406 UBD ATM Less Need for Stimulation • If the formation is not damaged during drilling and completion.

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