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Assoc. Prof. Ma. Jennifer R.

Tiburcio,MSMT Department of Med Tech UST Faculty of Pharmacy

Immune response
host reaction to a foreign substance – antigen

humoral cellular tolerance

Fate of the antigen

Mode of entry

Site of Ag trapping
Peyer’s patches Intestinal mucosa Alveolar lining


Regional lymph node

Intravenous/ Intraperitoneal Spleen

Regardless of the route of administration
macrophages – pivotal role

present the Ag – lymphoid cells in phagocytosis function as effector cells – recognize, engulf & destroy the Ags accessory cells major APCs

Processing of exogenous Ags in association w/ MHC II molecules
1. Phagocytosis or endocytosis of antigen 2. Digestion of antigen into peptide fragments (APC) 3. Fusion of vesicles containing peptide fragments and

MHC II molecules
4. Peptide fragments bind to MHC II molecules 5. Vesicle undergoes exocytosis and Ag-MHC II

complexes are inserted into the membrane

Processing of Ags in association with MHC I Molecules
1. Class I molecules bind peptides that have been synthesized within the cell --- viral proteins 2. Peptides from degraded viral proteins are transported into the endoplasmic reticulum 3. Partially folded MHC I molecules bound by calnexin meets viral peptide in the ER 4. Peptide binding completes MHC I folding releasing calnexin; only folded molecules are exported to the Golgi apparatus 5. Bound viral peptide is carried by MHC class I to the cell surface

Collaboration among cells
Humoral T helper, B cell & macrophage B cell undergoes blastogenesis & differentiation under the influence of various cytokines (intracellular adhesion molecules) Cellular T helper, Tcell precursor & macrophage

Activation of T cells 1. TH & TDTH – presentation of Ag with MHC class II CD28 on the T cell binding to B7 on APC 2. TC – TCR-CD8 & MHC Class II release of interleukins

3. TS – Ag appears to be capable of directly activating
TS cells

Activation of B cells 1. Provided by the interactions between Ag and B cell Ig receptor 2. Contact between T helper cells & B cells mediated by soluble materials released from T helper cells 3. Various interleukins (BCGF) also affect B cell proliferation & maturation Additional adhesion molecules important in cell activation CD28 – T cells B7 (also BB1) – B cells