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THE ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION EFFECT

The term electromagnetic induction refers to the generation of an electric current by passing a metal wire through a magnetic field. The discovery of electromagnetic induction in 1831 was preceded a decade earlier by a related discovery by Danish physicist Hans Christian Oersted (1777–1851). Oersted showed that an electric current produces a magnetic field. That is, if you place a simple magnetic compass near any of the electrical wires in your home that are carrying a current, you can detect a magnetic field around the wires. If an electric current can produce a magnetic field, physicists reasoned, perhaps the reverse effect could be observed as well. So they set out to generate an electric current from a magnetic field. That effect was first observed in 1831 by English physicist Michael Faraday (1791–1867) and shortly thereafter by American physicist Joseph Henry (1797–1878). is the production of voltage across a conductor situated in a changing magnetic field or a conductor moving through a stationary magnetic field.

In practice. This applies whether the field itself changes in strength or the conductor is moved through it.Technical Details Faraday found that the electromotive force (EMF) produced around a closed path is proportional to the rate of change of the magnetic flux through any surface bounded by that path. transformers. induction motors. this means that an electrical current will be induced in any closed circuit when the magnetic flux through a surface bounded by the conductor changes. synchronous motors. Electromagnetic induction underlies the operation of generators. solenoids. . all electric motors. and most other electrical machines.

from the resistance second. there is an one induced current in relative the first but other. we keep  the again detect a current during motion.1d. closed (perhaps by changing the second coil’s temp. the second again only while coil is moving tocircuit.Finally.see the fig. there isthus current the first but vary the (and the in current) in coil. the coil. If we  D C magnet stationary and move the coil. the meter shows current in the circuit. there A B away from the first or move the toward orWhen away we momentary current pulse in thefirst first circuit.1A. 29. We call this an induced current. 29. a coil of wire is connected to a galvanometer.1c magnet with29. by opening and closing theisswitch or by Wheneither the second coil is stationary. . we move the second coil toward or is a find that when as we open or close the switch. a second both coils stationary and vary the current in the second connected to a battery. In figure 29. When the nearby magnet is stationary.) we However.1B). using we the replace two-coilthe setup in figure we coil keep In Fig. coil. and the corresponding emf required to cause this current is called induced emf. but only while the magnet is moving (Pls. there no current changing the resistance of the second coil with the switch in the first coil. only while the current in the second circuit is changing.

as in a dam. Perhaps the most important of these is an electrical generator. . That current then can be sent out along transmission lines to homes. One way to make the coil spin is to attach it to a turbine powered by water. office buildings. factories. As the coil spins between the poles of the magnet. In a generator.APPLICATION Many electrical devices operate on the principle of electromagnetic induction. and other consumers of electric power. Steam from a boiler can also be used to make the coil spin. An electrical generator is a device for converting kinetic energy (the energy of an object due to its motion) into electrical energy. an electric current is generated. a wire coil is placed between the poles of a magnet and caused to spin at a high rate of speed.

or the force induced will be in the direction of the central axis of the toroid. The main difference in the one inductor drive is that the fields are all contained within the device. Thank You President Cory. we begin to see how it generates a force. END . By applying the laws of electromagnetodynamics to this unique arrangement we deduce the force produced is 90 degrees to both the electric and magnetic componenets. The electric field in the coil is induced always 90 degress out of phase of the magnetic field inducing it ( current lags voltage or vice versa ). ( Resultant impulse or force produced is not shown in the One Inductor Drive animation ) This force and its opposite reaction tends to push the toroid in the direction of the initially applied direct current impulse.It is a solid state version of a helical induction pump. For example. The magnetic field in the toroid is essentially traveling in a circular path ( for each half cycle ) and the resultant current induced in its windings is like wise in the same circular path ( again for each half cycle).Transformers also operate on the principle of electromagnetic induction. A figure of electromagnetic induction By applying these electromagnetodynamic principles to the one inductor drive. Transformers are devices that convert electric current from one potential difference (voltage) to another potential difference. So we have a rotating electric field or current( for one half cycle ) and a rotating or circular magnetic field ( for one half cycle ) 90 degrees out of phase with each other.