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Humoral or Ab response

1. Period of Ag elimination First phase: 90% is removed – through the lung, liver & spleen – extensive phagocytosis Second phase: gradual catabolic degradation & removal process – enzymatic hydrolysis & digestion Third phase: accelerated removal of Ag due to Ab combining w/ Ag, enhances phagocytosis, digestion & removal

Primary Response
First injection of Ag Antigen Route of administration Species of animal Serologic test

Lag of several hours to several days Latent/Induction Few cells Ab finds residual Ag Ab is detected (5th to 10th day) IgM ----IgG

Rises, reaches its peak, begins to drop

Secondary Response Accelerated/booster Anamnestic response
2nd injection of the same Ag Ab drops first (still complexing w/ newly injected Ag) Rises, reaches its peak & persist for a longer period of time

Host is primed for that particular Ag

Long-lived cells More Ab production More IgG than IgM (memory cells)

Humoral or Ab response

Difference between Primary and Secondary Response

1. Ab titer: greater in 1. Lag phase – delayed secondary response response 2. Time course: shorter lag 2. Log phase – increase Ab phase & extended plateau production in 3. Plateau – Ab titer is secondary response stabilized 3. Ab class more IgG in 4. Decline – Ab is cleared secondary response 4. Ab affinity:greater in secondary response

Cellular Response
1. Describe localized reactions to intracellular microbes 2. Mediated by lymphocytes 3. Occurs after Ag presentation & activation of T cells Activation – regulated by T helper & T suppressor 4. Certain T cells release lymphokines – activate macrophages 5. Cytotoxic T cells – activated by Ag & receive assistance from helper cells to directly kill their target cells 6. Helper T cells also cooperate w/ B cells in the production of Ab, which may arm killer cells carrying Fc receptors 7. NK cells act nonspecifically, particularly against cellular targets

Cellular Response

Cellular Response

Perforin mediated killing
T cytotoxic & activated NK cells contain perforin which polymerizes to form a pore in the the target cell’s membrane and granizymes (fragmentins) , a serine protease which are required in some killing

Fas system
T cytotoxic cell delivers lethal hit to their target cells via calcium independent mechanism – Fas system. TC cell binds to the target cell through the Fas ligand & known to induce apoptosis

ADCC
kill their target cell coated with specific Ab

Macrophages
present the Ag to the T cells during the induction phase & become activated in response to lymphokines during the effector phase