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Ecology And Environment

Lecture series – 1
By Dr. Amit Prakash

etc.) that surrounds an organism. It was actually coined by combining two Greek words “OIKOS” and “LOGOS”. soil. Haeckel (1866). light. water. • What is Ecology – The term Ecology was actually coined by Dr. Thus environment is a complex of so many things ( air. – OIKOS – house or dwelling place – LOGOS – the study of .Introduction • What is Environment: – The term Environment means surroundings .

Odum” .• Ecology is study of relationship between living organism and its surrounding environment • In terms of “E.P. Ecology is the study of structure and function of Ecosystem. .

G.ECOSYSTEM • “The system resulting from the integration of all the living and non living component of environment” A. • Ecosystem = Eco+ System • An ecosystem is the whole biotic community in a given area plus its abiotic Environment. Tansley in 1935. .

biotic diversity. That system is known as ecological system of Ecosystem. • The system can be classified as 1) Open system 2) Closed system 3) isolated . and material cycle within a system.• The biotic assemblage of all the organisms (plants as well as animals) that interacts with its physical environment in such a manner that there is a flow of energy leading to clearly defined trophic structures.

Aquatic a) Freshwater (i)Lotic (running water) (ii)Lentic (Standing water) b) Marine : Ocean. Desert 2. Estuary • .Terrestrial: Forest.Type of Ecosystem Natural Ecosystem 1. Grassland.

plants Nutrient pool in soil Energy release Decomposers – micro and macroorganism in soil Carnivores: animals Herbivores: animals .Artificial Ecosystem • Maintained artificially by man.g. Cropland SUN Primary producers eg. by addition of energy and planned manipulations. e.

Communities are discrete units of vegetation. • Flora – it is the species content of the region irrespective of the numerical strength of each species.Terminology of ecology • Species. – It is a uniform interbreeding population spread over time and population • Vegetation – it is the sum total of plant population covering a is a natural biological unit tied together by the sharing of a common gene pool. .

is known as factors.any external force. • Environment – the sum of all such factors constitutes the environment • Habitat – the place where an organism lives is known as the habitat that organisms . substance or conditions that affects the organisms in any way. • Factor.• Population – A group of individual organisms of the same species in a given area. • Communities – group of populations of different species in a given area.

stems etc. but differ markedly in vegetative character such as size.• Ecads – an ecad of a plant species is a population of individuals which belong to the same genetic stock. no. shape. • Ecotype – it is population of individuals of a species which are genetically different. of leaves. . thus plant species are known as biological clocks. • Biological clocks – plant species possess physiological mechanisms that indicate particular season of the year.

Structure of Ecosystem • Abiotic Component Solar Radiation Atmospheric & Topographic component Water Edaphic(soil) component • Biotic Component all living organism .

Solar Radiation • Solar heat budget Solar radiation and plant • Chlorophyll production • Transpiration Rate • Stomata opening • Heliophytes plant : Grow best in full sunlight • Sciophytes plant : Grow best in lower light .

Atmospheric factor Structure of atmosphere Atmospheric Gases Wind factor .

• Steepness of slope .Topographic factor • Concept of Microclimate • Direction of mountain and rainfall and effect on plant growth.

Soil air) • Weathering • Soil organic matter and plant growth .Edaphic Component • Soil and soil component(mineral.Soil water.

.Biotic Component • The organisation of biotic components of ecosystem is based on certain ecological principles. elemental cycling and energy flow. linked with biomass and productivity.

Sea anemone attached to Shell of hermit crab iii.Protocooperation :Both the population benefited but association is not obligatory e.g. Lichens.g.Mutualism: Both the population benefited and association is obligatory e.Commensalism: commensel benefited .+0) not effected e. Symbiotic nitrogen fixation bacteria .g. Epiphytes ii.Biotic Component • Biodiversity • Bacteria Amoeba Spong Hydra Tapeworm Ascaris Earthworm Arthropods snails starfish fish frog snake birds Elephant • Relationship among organism a) Positive interaction (+ +.

-) interspecific intraspecific a) Parasitism (+ -) .+ -) a) Competition (.-.b)Negative interaction (.

Function of Ecosystem • • • • • Production Function Habitat Function Biogeochemical Cycling Information Function Regulatory Function .