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Ecology And Environment

Lecture series 1
By Dr. Amit Prakash

Introduction
What is Environment: The term Environment means surroundings . Thus environment is a complex of so many things ( air, water, soil, light, etc.) that surrounds an organism. What is Ecology The term Ecology was actually coined by Dr. Haeckel (1866). It was actually coined by combining two Greek words OIKOS and LOGOS. OIKOS house or dwelling place LOGOS the study of

Ecology is study of relationship between living organism and its surrounding environment In terms of E.P. Odum , Ecology is the study of structure and function of Ecosystem.

ECOSYSTEM
The system resulting from the integration of all the living and non living component of environment A.G. Tansley in 1935. Ecosystem = Eco+ System An ecosystem is the whole biotic community in a given area plus its abiotic Environment.

The biotic assemblage of all the organisms (plants as well as animals) that interacts with its physical environment in such a manner that there is a flow of energy leading to clearly defined trophic structures, biotic diversity, and material cycle within a system. That system is known as ecological system of Ecosystem.

The system can be classified as 1) Open system 2) Closed system

3) isolated

Type of Ecosystem
Natural Ecosystem 1.Terrestrial: Forest, Grassland, Desert 2. Aquatic a) Freshwater (i)Lotic (running water) (ii)Lentic (Standing water) b) Marine : Ocean, Estuary

Artificial Ecosystem
Maintained artificially by man, by addition of energy and planned manipulations. e.g. Cropland
SUN Primary producers eg. plants Nutrient pool in soil

Energy release

Decomposers micro and macroorganism in soil Carnivores: animals

Herbivores: animals

Terminology of ecology
Species- it is a natural biological unit tied together by the sharing of a common gene pool.
It is a uniform interbreeding population spread over time and population

Vegetation it is the sum total of plant population covering a region. Communities are discrete units of vegetation.
Flora it is the species content of the region irrespective of the numerical strength of each species.

Population A group of individual organisms of the same species in a given area.

Communities group of populations of different species in a given area.


Factor- any external force, substance or conditions that affects the organisms in any way, is known as factors. Environment the sum of all such factors constitutes the environment Habitat the place where an organism lives is known as the habitat that organisms

Ecads an ecad of a plant species is a population of individuals which belong to the same genetic stock, but differ markedly in vegetative character such as size, shape, no. of leaves, stems etc.

Ecotype it is population of individuals of a species which are genetically different. Biological clocks plant species possess physiological mechanisms that indicate particular season of the year, thus plant species are known as biological clocks,

Structure of Ecosystem
Abiotic Component Solar Radiation Atmospheric & Topographic component Water Edaphic(soil) component

Biotic Component all living organism

Solar Radiation
Solar heat budget Solar radiation and plant Chlorophyll production Transpiration Rate Stomata opening Heliophytes plant : Grow best in full sunlight Sciophytes plant : Grow best in lower light

Atmospheric factor
Structure of atmosphere Atmospheric Gases Wind factor

Topographic factor
Concept of Microclimate Direction of mountain and rainfall and effect on plant growth. Steepness of slope

Edaphic Component
Soil and soil component(mineral,Soil water,Soil air) Weathering Soil organic matter and plant growth

Biotic Component
The organisation of biotic components of ecosystem is based on certain ecological principles, linked with biomass and productivity, elemental cycling and energy flow.

Biotic Component
Biodiversity Bacteria Amoeba Spong Hydra Tapeworm Ascaris Earthworm Arthropods snails starfish fish frog snake birds Elephant Relationship among organism a) Positive interaction (+ +,+0) i.Commensalism: commensel benefited ,host not effected e.g. Epiphytes ii.Protocooperation :Both the population benefited but association is not obligatory e.g. Sea anemone attached to Shell of hermit crab iii.Mutualism: Both the population benefited and association is obligatory e.g. Lichens, Symbiotic nitrogen fixation bacteria

b)Negative interaction (- -,+ -) a) Competition (- -) interspecific intraspecific a) Parasitism (+ -)

Function of Ecosystem
Production Function Habitat Function Biogeochemical Cycling Information Function Regulatory Function