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You are on page 1of 28

WELCOME

A rectangular arrangement of

numbers in rows and columns.

The of a matrix is the number of the

rows and columns.

The are the numbers in the matrix.

(

(

(

¸

(

¸

÷ ÷

÷

6 7 2 3 7

8 9 5 1 1

3 6 4 0 2

| | 0 7 5 9 ÷

(

(

(

¸

(

¸

÷

÷

3 4 10

2 0 0

3 1 8

(

¸

(

¸

÷

2 0

1 1

(

(

(

(

¸

(

¸

÷

6

0

7

9

3 x 3

3 x 5

2 x 2

4 x 1

1 x 4

(or square

matrix)

(Also called a row

matrix)

(or square

matrix)

(Also called a

column matrix)

If A and B are both m × n matrices then the sum of A and B, denoted A + B, is a

matrix obtained by adding corresponding elements of A and B.

(

¸

(

¸

÷

÷

=

3 1 0

2 2 1

A

(

¸

(

¸

÷

÷

=

4 1 2

4 0 3

B

(

¸

(

¸

÷

÷ ÷

= +

1 0 2

6 2 2

B A

To subtract two matrices, they must have the same

order. You simply subtract corresponding entries.

(

(

(

¸

(

¸

÷

÷ ÷

(

(

(

¸

(

¸

÷

2 3 2

4 5 1

7 0 4

8 3 1

6 0 5

4 2 9

(

(

(

¸

(

¸

÷ ÷ ÷ ÷

÷ ÷ ÷ ÷

÷ ÷ ÷ ÷

=

2 8 3 3 ) 2 ( 1

) 4 ( 6 5 0 1 5

7 4 0 2 4 9

(

(

(

¸

(

¸

÷

÷ ÷

=

6 0 3

10 5 4

3 2 5

In matrix algebra, a real number is often called a SCALAR. To

multiply a matrix by a scalar, you multiply each entry in the

matrix by that scalar.

(

¸

(

¸

÷

÷

=

) 1 ( 4 ) 4 ( 4

) 0 ( 4 ) 2 ( 4

(

¸

(

¸

÷

÷

1 4

0 2

4

(

¸

(

¸

÷

÷

=

4 16

0 8

A B B A + = +

C B A C B A + + = + + ) ( ) (

If A is an m × n matrix and s is a scalar, then we let kA denote the matrix obtained

by multiplying every element of A by k. This procedure is called scalar

multiplication.

( ) ( )

( )

( )

k hA kh A

k h A kA hA

k A B kA kB

=

+ = +

+ = +

(

¸

(

¸

÷

÷

=

3 1 0

2 2 1

A

( ) ( ) ( )

( ) ( ) ( )

(

¸

(

¸

÷

÷

=

(

¸

(

¸

÷

÷

=

9 3 0

6 6 3

3 3 1 3 0 3

2 3 2 3 1 3

3A

PROPERTIES OF SCALAR MULTIPLICATION

The m × n zero matrix, denoted 0, is the m × n

matrix whose elements are all zeros.

( ) 0 0

0 ) (

0

=

= ÷ +

= +

A

A A

A A

(

¸

(

¸

0 0

0 0

| | 0 0 0

2 × 2

1 × 3

( ) ( )

( )

( ) BC AC C B A

AC AB C B A

C AB BC A

+ = +

+ = +

=

PROPERTIES OF MATRIX

MULTIPLICATION

BA AB=

an n × n matrix with ones on the main diagonal and zeros

elsewhere

(

(

(

¸

(

¸

=

1 0 0

0 1 0

0 0 1

3

I

What is AI?

What is IA?

(

(

(

¸

(

¸

÷

÷

=

3 2 2

5 1 0

2 1 2

A

(

(

(

¸

(

¸

=

1 0 0

0 1 0

0 0 1

3

I

A =

(

(

(

¸

(

¸

÷

÷

3 2 2

5 1 0

2 1 2

A =

(

(

(

¸

(

¸

÷

÷

3 2 2

5 1 0

2 1 2

Multiplying a matrix by

the identity gives the

matrix back again.

If A has an inverse we say that A is nonsingular.

If A

-1

does not exist we say A is singular.

To find the inverse of a matrix we put the matrix A, a line and then the

identity matrix. We then perform row operations on matrix A to turn it into

the identity. We carry the row operations across and the right hand side

will turn into the inverse.

To find the inverse of a matrix we put the matrix A, a line and then the

identity matrix. We then perform row operations on matrix A to turn it into

the identity. We carry the row operations across and the right hand side

will turn into the inverse.

(

¸

(

¸

÷ ÷

=

7 2

3 1

A

(

¸

(

¸

÷ 1 2 1 0

0 1 3 1

2r

1

+r

2

(

¸

(

¸

÷ ÷ 1 0 7 2

0 1 3 1

(

¸

(

¸

÷ ÷ 1 2 1 0

0 1 3 1

÷r

2

(

¸

(

¸

÷ ÷ 1 2 1 0

3 7 0 1

r

1

÷ r

2

b x

1 ÷

= A

b x

1 1 ÷ ÷

= A A A

b x = A

left multiply both sides by the

inverse of A

This is just the identity

b x

1 ÷

= A I

but the identity times a matrix

just gives us back the matrix

so we have:

This then gives us a formula for

finding the variable matrix: Multiply A

inverse by the constants.

Remember! You can’t multiply any

matrix. There are some conditions!

The number of columns on the first matrix has to be

same as the number of rows of the second matrix.

The Transpose of a Matrix

Sometimes it is of interest to interchange the rows

and columns of a matrix

The transpose of a matrix A=Aij is a matrix formed

from A by inter changing rows and columns such

that row i of A becomes columns I of the transpose

matrix. The transpose is denoted by At and

At=Aji when A= Aij

Example of the “Transpose”

A= 1 3 A

T

= 1 2

2 5 3 5

A= 1 3 4 A

T

= 1 0

0 1 0 3 1

4 0

It will be observed that if A is m x n, At is

n x m

Q. What is a Partitioned Matrix and what

does it have to do with me?

A. Ah, good question.

Well, a Partitioned Matrix is a matrix that has

been broken down into several smaller matrices

But why tell you when I can show you a picture.

Lets say I have a 5x4 Matrix called “G”

And now a partitioned version (with the partition

lines in red):

And now we name the individual parts

(AKA: Blocks or Submatrices):

Now we can rewrite “G” as a 3x2

Matrix:

MIND READER

1.You should press the

calculator thrice

You should the result as 100

The only condition is that you

should not press ‘0’ button

2. A 40kg stone is broken into 4

pieces.

What will be the wait of 4

broken pieces.

You have to tell the wait of 4

pieces provided that the values

must satisfies every kg upto 40 kg

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