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# MATRICES

WELCOME
A rectangular arrangement of
numbers in rows and columns.
The of a matrix is the number of the
rows and columns.
The are the numbers in the matrix.
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷ ÷
÷
6 7 2 3 7
8 9 5 1 1
3 6 4 0 2
| | 0 7 5 9 ÷
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
÷
3 4 10
2 0 0
3 1 8
(
¸
(

¸

÷
2 0
1 1
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
6
0
7
9
3 x 3
3 x 5
2 x 2
4 x 1
1 x 4
(or square
matrix)
(Also called a row
matrix)
(or square
matrix)
(Also called a
column matrix)

If A and B are both m × n matrices then the sum of A and B, denoted A + B, is a
matrix obtained by adding corresponding elements of A and B.

(
¸
(

¸

÷
÷
=
3 1 0
2 2 1
A
(
¸
(

¸

÷
÷
=
4 1 2
4 0 3
B
(
¸
(

¸

÷
÷ ÷
= +
1 0 2
6 2 2
B A
To subtract two matrices, they must have the same
order. You simply subtract corresponding entries.
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
÷ ÷
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
2 3 2
4 5 1
7 0 4
8 3 1
6 0 5
4 2 9
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
=
2 8 3 3 ) 2 ( 1
) 4 ( 6 5 0 1 5
7 4 0 2 4 9
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
÷ ÷
=
6 0 3
10 5 4
3 2 5
In matrix algebra, a real number is often called a SCALAR. To
multiply a matrix by a scalar, you multiply each entry in the
matrix by that scalar.
(
¸
(

¸

÷
÷
=
) 1 ( 4 ) 4 ( 4
) 0 ( 4 ) 2 ( 4
(
¸
(

¸

÷
÷
1 4
0 2
4

(
¸
(

¸

÷
÷
=
4 16
0 8
A B B A + = +
C B A C B A + + = + + ) ( ) (
If A is an m × n matrix and s is a scalar, then we let kA denote the matrix obtained
by multiplying every element of A by k. This procedure is called scalar
multiplication.

( ) ( )
( )
( )
k hA kh A
k h A kA hA
k A B kA kB
=
+ = +
+ = +
(
¸
(

¸

÷
÷
=
3 1 0
2 2 1
A
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
(
¸
(

¸

÷
÷
=
(
¸
(

¸

÷
÷
=
9 3 0
6 6 3
3 3 1 3 0 3
2 3 2 3 1 3
3A
PROPERTIES OF SCALAR MULTIPLICATION
The m × n zero matrix, denoted 0, is the m × n
matrix whose elements are all zeros.
( ) 0 0
0 ) (
0
=
= ÷ +
= +
A
A A
A A
(
¸
(

¸

0 0
0 0
| | 0 0 0
2 × 2
1 × 3
( ) ( )
( )
( ) BC AC C B A
AC AB C B A
C AB BC A
+ = +
+ = +
=
PROPERTIES OF MATRIX
MULTIPLICATION
BA AB=
an n × n matrix with ones on the main diagonal and zeros
elsewhere
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
1 0 0
0 1 0
0 0 1
3
I
What is AI?
What is IA?
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
÷
=
3 2 2
5 1 0
2 1 2
A
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
1 0 0
0 1 0
0 0 1
3
I
A =
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
÷
3 2 2
5 1 0
2 1 2
A =
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
÷
3 2 2
5 1 0
2 1 2
Multiplying a matrix by
the identity gives the
matrix back again.
If A has an inverse we say that A is nonsingular.
If A
-1
does not exist we say A is singular.
To find the inverse of a matrix we put the matrix A, a line and then the
identity matrix. We then perform row operations on matrix A to turn it into
the identity. We carry the row operations across and the right hand side
will turn into the inverse.
To find the inverse of a matrix we put the matrix A, a line and then the
identity matrix. We then perform row operations on matrix A to turn it into
the identity. We carry the row operations across and the right hand side
will turn into the inverse.
(
¸
(

¸

÷ ÷
=
7 2
3 1
A
(
¸
(

¸

÷ 1 2 1 0
0 1 3 1
2r
1
+r
2
(
¸
(

¸

÷ ÷ 1 0 7 2
0 1 3 1
(
¸
(

¸

÷ ÷ 1 2 1 0
0 1 3 1
÷r
2
(
¸
(

¸

÷ ÷ 1 2 1 0
3 7 0 1
r
1
÷ r
2
b x
1 ÷
= A
b x
1 1 ÷ ÷
= A A A
b x = A
left multiply both sides by the
inverse of A
This is just the identity
b x
1 ÷
= A I
but the identity times a matrix
just gives us back the matrix
so we have:
This then gives us a formula for
finding the variable matrix: Multiply A
inverse by the constants.
Remember! You can’t multiply any
matrix. There are some conditions!
The number of columns on the first matrix has to be
same as the number of rows of the second matrix.

The Transpose of a Matrix
 Sometimes it is of interest to interchange the rows
and columns of a matrix
 The transpose of a matrix A=Aij is a matrix formed
from A by inter changing rows and columns such
that row i of A becomes columns I of the transpose
matrix. The transpose is denoted by At and
 At=Aji when A= Aij

Example of the “Transpose”
 A= 1 3 A
T
= 1 2
2 5 3 5

 A= 1 3 4 A
T
= 1 0
0 1 0 3 1
4 0

It will be observed that if A is m x n, At is
n x m
Q. What is a Partitioned Matrix and what
does it have to do with me?
A. Ah, good question.
Well, a Partitioned Matrix is a matrix that has
been broken down into several smaller matrices
But why tell you when I can show you a picture.

Lets say I have a 5x4 Matrix called “G”
And now a partitioned version (with the partition
lines in red):
And now we name the individual parts
(AKA: Blocks or Submatrices):
Now we can rewrite “G” as a 3x2
Matrix:
1.You should press the
calculator thrice
You should the result as 100
The only condition is that you
should not press ‘0’ button

2. A 40kg stone is broken into 4
pieces.
What will be the wait of 4
broken pieces.
You have to tell the wait of 4
pieces provided that the values
must satisfies every kg upto 40 kg