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By V.

Parameswari A0104394J

The process of deterioration of reinforcement due to chemical or electrochemical change caused in presence of moisture. It is a process of returning of a metal to its original state(ore) by oxidation. 2Fe(s) + O2(g) + H2O(l) Fe(OH)2

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Removal of damaged concrete as it may contain cracks, delamination, etc If the reinforcing member has rust should be cleaned and a protective coat may be applied. Highly corroded steel area which needs replacement. Replace the removed concrete which prevents the ingress of corrosion.


The cracks and rust strains are formed on reinforced concrete lining segments may be due to Chlorine attack Carbonation Sulfate attack Alkali-aggregate reaction (AAR) Delayed ettringite formation(DEF) .       One of the cause for corrosion in underground MRT tunnel is water infiltration.

The sulfate attack on concrete manifests itself in the form of expansion. It is a special case of sulphate attack where sulphate ions are formed within the concrete. It causes swelling of concrete and thus forming map cracking. A high sulphate content in water is generally indicative of the presence of magnesium and alkali sulphates. . potassium and magnesium are the primary source of sulphate ions in groundwater.    Soils containing sulphates of calcium sodium. nitrate and carbonate ions the sulphate ion attack is more severe. loss of mass and/or disintegration. In combination with ammonium. chloride. cracking. As far as corrosion in underground tunnel DEF will be the major problem.

. Since the testing also done in the night temperature limits are not taken into account. MRT are operated all throughout the day. The possibility of executing the repair strategies in during the night time from 12am to 5. economically and efficiently. And can also be done at the intervals of two trains arrival about 10 min gaps.30am. If temperature is considered there could be more concentration of corrosion.        In Singapore. Involving a small group of skilled labours to complete the work in time. Planning and scheduling the repairing works for each day. The regions which needs repairing can be separated into different parts so that job can be carried out day by day without interruption of traffic.

.  Half cell potential Ultra sonic pulse velocity (UPV)  Measured by using a digital voltmeter and corrosion of reinforcements are studied at several points.

 The results are plotted to get the contour map of corrosion of reinforcement.  In tunnels .indirect transmission method can be followed because only one face of the concrete is accessible. T R KEY T-Transmitter R-Receiver .

0 V between 2.5 and 4.0 V between 3.5 and 3. but may be porous Poor V between 2.5 V Less than 2.0 and 3. large voids suspected . The test equipment has provisions for generating ultrasonic pulse.5 Concrete quality Very good Good.0 V between 3.0 and 2.0 and reading Very poor Very poor and low integrity fluctuating No integrity. transmitting it to concrete. By this technique one can assess the quality of concrete such as honey combing & compaction UPV value in km/sec (V) V greater than 4.    The dynamic modulus of elasticity of concrete is measured by measuring the velocity of ultrasonic pulse through concrete. Good acoustic coupling between the transducers and concrete is to be established for correct measurement of the speed. receiving and amplifying the pulse and measuring and displaying the pulse travel time.

 Ultra sonic pulse velocity method is used to find out the internal cracks and depth of visible cracks causes by sulphate attack. .

Strategy 1:  Corrosion inhibitors  Using high grade mix proportion with silica fumes as mortar  Quick setting cement  Epoxy injection and grouting Strategy 2:  Epoxy coating of reinforcement Strategy 3:  Using zinc primer coating Strategy 4:  Cathodic protection .

Replacement is necessary if it had lost more than 10-20% of the cross-sectional area. Less corroded reinforcements are cleaned and worn out reinforcements are replaced. As the concrete cover is removed the reinforcement is exposed. If the reinforcement inside the old concrete had been severely damaged or had lost substantial proportion of its cross-sectional area by corrosion . The old concrete surface at the back of the reinforcements are grouted with epoxy.      The surface of the damaged area is removed as there will be map cracking due to sulphate may need to be replaced by new bars. .

It gives a good compressive strength at earliest time. Leave at least 2 hours after setting before applying any load. . Corrosion inhibitors like calcium nitrite is also added to the concrete. Quick Setting Concrete attains initial setting within15 minutes under normal conditions and should be placed immediately upon mixing.    The new concrete cover is made with a high grade of mix proportions with silica fumes and quick setting compound like calcium phosphate is used. It protects from chlorides and sulphates attack. These admixture forms a passive film (γ-FeOOH)around the reinforcements and thus resisting from corrosion.

 Silica fumes are added to Make the concrete dense and prevents from shrinkage cracks. Since the reinforcement cannot be fully removed and coated with epoxy this method also fails. To reduce the chloride associated corrosion and sulphate attack. . To control alkali-silica reaction to conserve cement To produce ultra high strength of concrete.    Epoxy coating is a best way to prevent corrosion of reinforcement if it is done at the early stage. One more disadvantage is that when the epoxy coating breaks that acts as the anode and gets easily corroded.

It is costly and time consuming. The damaged concrete cover is removed. This method is time consuming . Application of zinc primer fails as the reinforcement has to be fully removed from the concrete structures.Zn. .g.Mg) can be provided at definite intervals along with the reinforcements.       Cathodic protection can be also adopted to resist the corrosion. Sacrificial anodes (e. Sacrificial anodes takes up the corrosion and they get easily oxidized.   Apply zinc primer coating on the reinforcements where zinc gets oxidized and acts as a sacrificial film. Thus preventing the reinforcement from corrosion.

shear tests and compression and shear test had to be done. .The repair material used should be studied on the following properties to have a good bonding with the old concrete structures:  compatibility requirements of new and old materials    Compatibility in dimensional stability Shrinkage of concrete Thermal expansion of concrete and also some lab tests for bond strength .

The surface is allowed to dry The Epoxy is injected until it floes out through the holes So it helps in preventing cracks in the future which will lead to corrosion. Drill in to the crack from the face of concrete Water or solvent is injected to flush the dirt and foreign matter.        The repaired works are monitored in a periodic intervals. The concrete is checked whether it had attained a good bonding with the old concrete. If any small cracks are formed during the time of monitoring. .

Materials used are cost effective. It does not require much skilled labours.      From the above all methods using corrosion inhibitors in the concrete is the economical way. As quick setting cement is used it will definitely will not hinder the traffic. Number of labours required is also less. . Less time consumption.

and Yunping Xi published by Taylor & Francis 2009 Repair and protection of concrete Electrochemical Tests for Reinforcement Corrossion. In Lindsay Kennedy (ed. 453-474 (Causes. pp. and Repair of Cracks. Evaluation and Development of Remedial Action. Concrete repair manual.Pmailvaganam.) (1998). 424-431 (Electrochemical tests for reinforcement corrosion.CRC Press.Christopher Leung. by Noel. 1 (Non-structural cracks in concrete pt. 198-206 (Diagnosis of deterioration in concrete structures.) (1998).REFERENCE MATERIALS: Structural renovation in concrete. pp.1.fhwa.) (1998).cfm Causes. Evaluation.pdf) Non-structural Cracks in Concrete.) (1998). Concrete repair manual.1992 http://www. 475-497 pt. In Lindsay Kennedy ( Zongjin Li.pdf) .youtube. Concrete repair http://www. In Lindsay Kennedy (ed. In Lindsay Kennedy (ed. Evaluation. and Repair of Cracks in Concrete Structures. 413.pdf) Diagnosis of Deterioration in Concrete Structures: Identification of Defects. Concrete repair manual. pp.