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Topic 2

Motion – in which direction?

Motion – in which direction?        Motion – in which direction? Representing vector quantities Graphical addition of vectors Subtracting vectors Relative velocities: Some applications Components of vector Algebraic addition of vectors .

Vectors and Scalars .

or magnitude. Alternatively. we can also write it as A .Vectors and Scalar  Scalar quantity is described by a single real number. it can be positive. A).g. zero or negative    Vector quantity has both a magnitude and a direction in space. Vectors are represented by a bold face type (e..

Vectors: geometric representation A vector is geometrically represented as a line segment with an arrow indicating direction Head Tail Direction of the arrow gives the direction of the vector Length of the arrow gives the magnitude of the vector .

Displacement  Displacement is the change of position of a point P2 The displacement form P1 A point P1 to P2 is vector A .

the displacement is zero Displacement is not related directly to the distance traveled  P2 P1 .Displacement Displacement is always a straight-line segment directed from the starting point to the end point  If the path ends at the same place where it started.

Vector Addition B A C =A+B .


C D R B A R = ( A+B ) + C =D+C .

Addition of vectors .

the vector components of a vector A are two perpendicular vectors Ax and Ay that are parallel to the x and y axes. and add together vectorially so that A = Ax + Ay . respectively.Components of Vectors Definition of Vector Components  In two dimensions.

Components of Vectors A  Ax  Ay Ax  cos  A Ay  sin  A Ay tan   Ax Ay A θ Ax .

A y  A sin  .Resolving a Vector into components y A Ay  Ax A 2 A2  A x y x A x  A cos .

Rx  Ax  Bx By R A Ry Ay Ax Rx B Ry  Ax  By A A  A 2 x 2 y Bx .

UNIT VECTORS A unit vector r is a vector having length 1 and no units. In terms of unit vectors. y and z axes respectively. we can express a 2-D vector as follows: A  Axi  Ay j z y j x i k . It is used to specify the direction of a vector: A ^ r So we can write A = Ar The unit vectors i. j. k point in the x.

and combine with the usual rules of arithmetic. and combine according to rules of vector addition. Vector quantities have direction as well as magnitude. . two vectors A and B are added by placing the tail of B at the head. of A . The vector sum A + B then extends from the tail of A to the head of B . Graphically. or tip.Summary     Scalar quantities are numbers.

What is the magnitude of Vx and Vy ? .0° south of east. 30. An airplane flies with a velocity of 750 kilometers per hour.

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