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By, J.

Anne Golda, 13PRGE02


consider some of the fundamental methods used to

construct computer based GIS worlds by grouping the entities together.

There are, in general, four options to build or construct

GIS real world model.

Types of models
LCGU based GIS

Layer based GIS

Feature based GIS and Object oriented GIS.

1) LCGU based GIS

The least common geographical units ( LCGU )

also known as Integrated Terrain Units ( ITU ) integrate all pertinent spatial data records into a single set of all classes. . The integrated terrain units are a combination of geomorphology, geology, and vegetation complexes (all of which are included as attributes).

2) Layer based GIS

The layering approach allows users to visualise a map

database as a set of registered map separations.

Each layer is thematic and reflects either a particular

use or a characteristic of the land use.

The concept of breaking the real world into a series of

thematic layers is the process that is used to develop the first map overlay analysis.

The logical extension of the layer concept is the use of

tiles. This approach breaks down geographical space into a series of regular or irregular units that can be reassembled through the use of a coordinate system.
In this model, GIS requires that data are broken down

into a set of logical terrain units to assist with physical display of data.

3) Feature based GIS

This is a new approach having the trappings of Object

oriented GIS, spatial analysis functionality from raster models and power from vector models.

4) Object oriented GIS

This is a relatively new approach compared to

structuring geographical space views of the real world as a set of individual objects and groups of objects.
This object-oriented approach integrates individual

geographical entities and attributes into semantic objects with inheritable properties. This approach is based on object-oriented programming.

The features are not divided into separate layers but

grouped into classes and hierarchies of objects.

The object oriented GIS approach, has the

characteristic feature of collecting, managing, and maintaining geographical (size, shape and location), topological (slope and aspect) and behaviour of objects as related to one another.

The object orient GIS has particular advantages for

spatial modelling over the layered GIS.

However, it does cause some problems associated with

implementation into a workable GIS.