You are on page 1of 75

Factors affecting the rate of reaction

Experiment 1.1: To investigate the effect of the

surface area of a reactant on the rate of reaction .

Factors affecting the rate of reaction


Problem statement How does the surface area of a solid reactant affect rate of reaction?

Factors affecting the rate of reaction


Hypothesis The smaller the size of the reactant particles, that is, the larger the total surface area of the reactant particles, the faster the rate of reaction.

Factors affecting the rate of reaction


Variables: (a) Manipulated-variable: (b) Responding variable :

chips used

(c) Fixed (controlled) variables: Temperature of the experiment, mass of marble chips, concentration and volume of hydrochloric acid.

Factors affecting the rate of reaction


Apparatus Conical flask, delivery tube fitted with a rubber stopper, retort stand and clamp, burette, measuring cylinder and stopwatch.

Factors affecting the rate of reaction


Materials Marble chips, powdered marble and 0.2 mol dm hydrochloric acid.

-3

Factors affecting the rate of reaction


Experiment 1 The rate of reaction using large marble chips Procedure


1 A burette is filled with water and inverted over a basin containing water. The burette is clamped to the retort stand. The water level in the burette is adjusted and the initial burette reading is recorded.

Factors affecting the rate of reaction


Experiment 1 The rate of reaction using large marble chips Procedure


2. 5.0 g of marble chips are placed in a small conical flask.

Factors affecting the rate of reaction


Experiment 1 The rate of reaction using large marble chips Procedure


3. 50 cm3 of 0.2 mol dm-3 hydrochloric acid is added to the marble chips.

Factors affecting the rate of reaction


Experiment 1 The rate of reaction using large marble chips Procedure


4 The delivery tube with a rubber stopper is inserted into the mouth of the conical flask (Figure 1.13). The stopwatch is started simultaneously.

Factors affecting the rate of reaction


Experiment 1 The rate of reaction using large marble chips Procedure


5 The burette readings are recorded at 30-second intervals.

Factors affecting the rate of reaction


Experiment 1 The rate of reaction using large marble chips Results

Factors affecting the rate of reaction


Experiment II - The rate of reaction using powdered marble Procedure 1 Steps 1 to 4 in Experiment I are repeated using 5.0 g of . All other conditions such as temperature, volume and concentration of hydrochloric acid are kept constant.

Factors affecting the rate of reaction


Experiment II - The rate of reaction using powdered marble Procedure 2 The results of the experiment are recorded in the following table.

Factors affecting the rate of reaction


Results Based on the results obtained, a graph of the total volume of carbon dioxide produced against time for each experiment is plotted on the same axes (Figure 1.11).

Factors affecting the rate of reaction

1 Figure 1.12 shows the graphs that will be obtained if the reactions in Experiments I and II are completed.

Factors affecting the rate of reaction

2 Figure 1.15 shows that both graphs level off at the same value. This indicates that the maximum volume of carbon dioxide collected at the end of reaction for both Experiments I and II are the same (that is, 120 cm3).

Factors affecting the rate of reaction

2 Figure 1.15 shows that both graphs level off at the same value. This indicates that the maximum volume of carbon dioxide collected at the end of reaction for both Experiments I and II are the same (that is, 120 cm3). This happens because the masses of the marble and the volumes of the hydrochloric acid used in both the experiments are the same.

Factors affecting the rate of reaction

3 The gradient of the graphs for Experiments I and II become as the reactions proceed.

less steep

Factors affecting the rate of reaction

3 The gradient of the graphs for Experiments I and II become less steep as the reactions proceed. This shows that the rates of reaction (a) are

very high

at the beginning of the reaction,

Factors affecting the rate of reaction


3 The gradient of the graphs for Experiments I and II become less steep as the reactions proceed. This shows that the rates of reaction (a) are very high at the beginning of the reaction, (b)

decrease as the reactions proceed,

Factors affecting the rate of reaction


3 The gradient of the graphs for Experiments I and II become less steep as the reactions proceed. This shows that the rates of reaction (a) are very high at the beginning of the reaction, (b) decrease as the reactions proceed, (c) become zero when the reactions have completed. At this time, the graphs become horizontal.

Factors affecting the rate of reaction

4 The rate of reaction between the marble and hydrochloric acid decreases because

(a) the mass of the remaining unreacted marble decreases.

Factors affecting the rate of reaction

4 The rate of reaction between the marble and hydrochloric acid decreases because (a) the mass of the remaining unreacted marble decreases. (b) the

concentration of hydrochloric acid decreases.

Factors affecting the rate of reaction

5 The reaction in Experiment I stops after t2 minutes while the reaction in Experiment II stops after t1, minutes, where t1 < t2. This shows that the rate of reaction for Experiment II (powdered marble) is faster than the rate of reaction for Experiment I (marble chips).

Factors affecting the rate of reaction

volume of carbon dioxide collected in the burette is usually slightly less than
6 The total the theoretical value.

Factors affecting the rate of reaction

6 The total volume of carbon dioxide collected in the burette is usually slightly less than the theoretical value. This is because carbon dioxide is in water. To overcome this problem, a gas syringe is used to collect carbon dioxide released during the experiment (Figure 1.13).

slightly soluble

Factors affecting the rate of reaction


Conclusion: Graph (II) is steeper than graph (I). This shows that the rate of reaction in Experiment II is faster than the rate of reaction in Experiment I. Powdered marble is used in Experiment II. Thus, the rate is faster with powdered marble than with marble chips. Hence, we can conclude that the smaller the particle size, the larger the total surface area exposed for reaction and of reaction.

the faster the rate

Concentration

Experiment 1.2: To study the effect of on the rate of reaction between sodium thiosulphate solution and dilute sulphuric acid

Concentration

Problem statement

How

does the concentration of a reactant affect the rate of reaction between sodium thiosulphate and dilute sulphuric acid?

Concentration

Hypothesis

The more concentrated the sodium thiosulphate solution, the higher the rate of reaction.

Concentration

Variables (a) Manipulated variable: thiosulphate solution

of sodium

Concentration

Variables (a) Manipulated variable: thiosulphate solution (b) Responding variable:

of sodium

Time taken for the cross 'X' to disappear

(c) Fixed (controlled) variables: Concentration and volume of dilute sulphuric acid as well as the temperatures of the solutions.

Concentration

Apparatus 10 cm3 and 100 cm3 measuring cylinders, 100 cm3 conical flask, white paper marked with a cross 'X', and stopwatch.

Concentration

Materials 0.2 mol dm -3 sodium thiosulphate solution, 1.0 mol dm-3 sulphuric acid and distilled water.

Concentration

Procedure 1 50 cm3 of 0.2 mol dm-3 sodium thiosulphate solution is measured out using a 100 cm3 measuring cylinder. The solution is then poured into a clean, dry conical flask.

Concentration

Procedure 2 The conical flask is placed on a piece of paper with across `X' marked on it (Figure 1.14).

Concentration

Procedure 3 5 cm3 of dilute sulphuric acid is measured out by using a 10 cm3 measuring cylinder. The acid is then quickly poured into sodium thiosulphate solution. The stopwatch is started immediately.

Concentration

Procedure 4 The reaction mixture is swirled once and the cross `X' is viewed from above. A yellow precipitate will appear slowly in the conical flask.

Concentration

Procedure 5 The stopwatch is stopped as soon as the cross disappears from view and the time taken is recorded.

Concentration

Procedure 6 Steps 1 to 5 are repeated with different mixtures of sodium thiosulphate solution and distilled water as shown in the following table.

Concentration

Results
Experiment Volume of Na2S2O3(cm3) Volume of water Volume of H2SO4(cm3) Concentration of Na2S2O3(moldm-3)
Time taken(s)
1 ( s 1 ) Time

1 50 0 5 0.20
24 0.042

2 40 10 5 0.16
30 0.033

3 30 20 5 0.12
42 0.024

4 20 30 5 0.08
62 0.016

5 10 40 5 0.04
111 0.009

M 1V1 M2 V2

50 x M= 40 x 0.2

Concentration

Discussion 1. Sodium thiosulphate, Na2 S2 O3 , reacts with dilute sulphuric acid according to the equation: Na2S2O3(aq) + H2 SO4(aq) Na2SO4(aq) + H2O(l) + SO2(g) + S(s)

Concentration

Discussion 1. Sodium thiosulphate, Na2 S2 O3 , reacts with dilute sulphuric acid according to the equation: Na2S2O3(aq) + H2 SO4(aq) Na2SO4(aq) + H2O(l) + SO2(g) + S(s)

The ionic equation is as follows: S2O32- (aq) + 2H+ (aq) S(s) + SO2(g) + H2O(l) The sulphur is precipitated as fine particles and causes the solution to turn cloudy.

Concentration

Discussion 2 As the amount of sulphur increases, the cross `X' becomes more and more difficult to see. Finally, the cross `X' disappears from view when a certain mass of sulphur is precipitated. Hence, the time recorded for the disappearance of the cross `X' is the time taken for the formation of a fixed mass of sulphur.

Concentration

Discussion
3

Rate of reaction =

mass of sulphur produced time taken

1 Hence, rate of reaction time taken for the cross ' X' to disappear

Concentration

Discussion

4 The concentration of sodium thiosulphate solution after mixing with water can be obtained by using the following formula: Concentration of Na2S2O3 =

M 1V1 0.2 volume of Na 2 S 2 O3 used moldm 3 V2 50

Concentration

Discussion 5 Based on the experimental results obtained, two graphs can be plotted. (a) The graph of concentration of sodium thiosulphate against time (Graph I, Figure 1.15).

Concentration
(b) The graph of concentration of sodium 1 thiosulphate against

time taken

(Graph II, Figure 1.16)

Concentration

the (for example, 100 cm3 volume). If the conical flask of a larger size (for example, 250 cm3 volume) is used, the time, t, taken for the cross `X' to disappear will increase. When the diameter of the bottom of conical flask increases, a greater amount of sulphur must be formed for the cross `X' to disappear. Conversely, if a smaller conical flask (for example, 50 cm3 volume) is used, the time taken for the cross to disappear will be shorter.

same size

The conical flask used for each experiment must have

Concentration

7 If the experiment is repeated with dilute sulphuric acid of different concentrations, but the concentration of sodium thiosulphate is kept constant, the rate of reaction will also be directly proportional to the concentration of the acid used.

Concentration

Conclusion
1

(a) the higher the concentration of sodium thiosulphate, the shorter the time taken for a certain mass of sulphur to he precipitated, that is, for the cross `X' to disappear from view.

From graph I, we can conclude that:

Concentration

Conclusion
1

(b) This means that the higher the concentration of sodium thiosulphate, the faster the rate of reaction.

From graph I, we can conclude that:

Concentration

Conclusion 2 From graph II, it can be concluded that the concentration of sodium thiosulphate is directly proportional to 1 time 1 Concentration of Na2S2O3 .(1) time Higher concentration, shorter time

Concentration
Concentration of Na2S2O3

1 time

1 But the rate of reaction is time

(2)

Hence, combining equations (1) and (2), we have, concentration of Na2S2O3 1 reaction rate.
time

That is, rate of reaction concentration of Na2S2O3 solution. The hypothesis is accepted.

Temperature

Experiment 1.3: to study the effect of temperature on the rate of reaction between sodium thiosulphate solution and dilute sulphuric acid

Temperature

Problem statement How does temperature affect the rate of reaction between sodium thiosulphate solution and sulphuric acid?

Temperature

Hypothesis The higher the temperature of the reactant, the faster the rate of reaction.

Temperature

Variables (a) Manipulated variable: The temperature of sodium thiosulphate solution

Temperature

Variables (b) Responding variable: The time taken for the cross `X' to disappear (c) Fixed (controlled) variables: The concentrations and volumes of both sodium thiosulphate solution and dilute sulphuric acid

Temperature

Apparatus Conical flask, 10 cm3 measuring cylinder, thermometer, stopwatch, white paper marked with a cross `X', wire gauze, tripod stand, and Bunsen burner.

Temperature

Apparatus Conical flask, 10 cm3 measuring cylinder, thermometer, stopwatch, white paper marked with a cross `X', wire gauze, tripod stand, and Bunsen burner.

Temperature

Materials

0.1 mol dm-3 sodium thiosulphate solution and 1.0 mol dm-3 sulphuric acid.

Temperature

Procedure Experiment I Rate of reaction at room temperature 1 50 cm3 of 0.1 mol dm-3 sodium thiosulphate solution is measured out using a 100 cm3 measuring cylinder, and poured into a clean, dry conical flask. The temperature of the sodium thiosulphate solution is measured with a thermometer.

Temperature

Experiment I Rate of reaction at room temperature 2 The conical flask is placed on a white paper marked with a cross 'X' (Figure 1.17). 3 5 cm3 of l mol dm-3 sulphuric acid is measured out using a 10 cm3 measuring cylinder. The acid is then quickly poured into the sodium thiosulphate solution.

Temperature

Experiment I Rate of reaction at room temperature 4 The stopwatch is started immediately and the conical flask is swirled gently. 5 The cross 'X' is viewed from above. The stopwatch is stopped as soon as the cross disappears from view and the time taken is recorded.

Temperature

Experiment II to V 6 The solution in the conical flask is poured out. The conical flask is washed thoroughly and dried. 50 cm3 of 0.1 mol dm-3 sodium thiosulphate solution is poured into the conical flask. The solution is heated over a wire gauze until the temperature reaches about 45 C (Figure 1.18).

Temperature

Experiment II to V Rate of reaction at temperatures above room temperature

7 The hot conical flask is placed over a white paper marked with a cross X. 8 5 cm3 of 1 mol dm-3 sulphuric acid is measured out using a 10 cm3 measuring cylinder.

Temperature

Experiment II to V Rate of reaction at temperatures above room temperature

9 . When the temperature of sodium thiosulphate solution falls to 40 C, the sulphuric acid is quickly poured into the thiosulphate solution. The stopwatch is started immediately and the conical flask is swirled gently.

Temperature

Experiment II to V Rate of reaction at temperatures above room temperature

10 The cross 'X' is viewed from the top and the time taken for the cross to disappear from view is recorded. 11 Steps 6 to 9 are repeated at higher temperatures as shown in the following table.

Temperature

Results

Temperature

Results Based on the results of the experiment, a graph temperature of sodium 1 thiosulphate solution against time is plotted (Figure 1.19).

Temperature

Conclusion: 1 The graph shows that the temperature of sodium thiosulphate solution is proportional (but not linearly) to 1
time

Temperature

Conclusion: 2 Temperature

1 ... (1) time 1 But rate of reaction ... (2) time


Combining equations (1) and (2), we have, Rate of reaction temperature

Temperature
Conclusion: 3 The higher the temperature of the experiment, the faster the rate of reaction.