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# Determine Point Symmetry

1. 2. 3. 4. Assign crystallographic axes Determine crystal system Look for symmetry elements Assign Hermann-Mauguin symbol by finding symmetry elements in the standard H-M directions.

3D H-M Notation:
System Triclinic Monoclinic Orthorhombic Tetragonal Trigonal Hexagonal Cubic First Second (only 1 and 1 possible) b-axis [010] a-axis [100] b-axis [010] c-axis [001] a-axis [100] c-axis [001] a-axis [100] " " c-axis [001] abc [111] Third

## Crystal Class: 2/m

Lecture 3

Crystal Systems
Triclinic System :

Lecture 3

Crystal Systems
Monoclinic System :

Lecture 3

Crystal Systems
Orthorhombic System :

Crystal Systems
Tetragonal System :

Lecture 3

Crystal Systems
Hexagonal System :

Lecture 3

Crystal Systems
Isometric System :

## Determine Point Symmetry

1. 2. 3. 4. Assign crystallographic axes Determine crystal system Look for symmetry elements Assign Hermann-Mauguin symbol

## Crystal system? Monoclinic Monoclinic b-axis [010] Point Group? 2/m

Crystal system? Orthorhombic Orthorhombic a-b-c Point Group? 2/m 2/m 2/m

## See, I fixed it!

Lecture 3

Crystal Systems
Classes Distinguished by Centres of Symmetry :

Crystal morphology
Crystal Faces = limiting surfaces of growth
Depends in part on shape of building units & physical cond. (T, P, matrix, nature & flow direction of solutions, etc.)

Crystal Morphology
Observation:
The frequency with which a given face in a crystal is observed is proportional to the density of lattice nodes along that plane

Observation:
1) The frequency with which a given face in a crystal is observed is proportional to the density of lattice nodes along that plane.

2) Because faces have direct relationship to the internal structure, they must have a direct and consistent angular relationship to each other

Crystal Morphology
Nicholas Steno (1669): Law of Constancy of Interfacial Angles

120o

120o

120o

Quartz
120o 120o 120o

120o

Imperfect crystals

## Law of constant interfacial angles:

The angles between symmetrically equivalent faces of a crystal are all the same

## The Reflection Goniometer

Problem 2:
Crystals dont always fit into nice orthogonal XYZ coordinate systems

## Stereonets are used for:

1. 2. 3. 4. Recording absolute angles between crystal faces Choosing and showing crystallographic axes. Keeping track of point symmetry elements. Recording the orientations of lines and planes in space generally

Structural Geology

## Next problem: Relative directions in crystals

Down the a-axis Equally between the a and c axes You know, kinda sideways to that weird lookin face there.
We need an exact method for describing lines and planes relative to crystal axes and lattices.
(p. 133 in Klein)

Miller Index: Describes a plane or a line perpendicular to the plane in a lattice in terms of axis intercepts in a lattice.
Example:

(110)

1/1, , 1/ (210)

a A plane parallel to the c-axis, that (010) intersects the a and b axes at equal lattice spacings. Calculate the miller index by taking the inverse of the Intercepts in each direction: 1/1, 1/1, 1/ (110)

## Some aspects of Miller Indices

Parallel planes or lines in a crystal have the same miller index. Miller indices are always reduced to integers (same thing!) c

(110)

a
(010) (010) (010)

(111)

(221)

Indexing crystals

If you can pick the Miller index of a prominent face you can determine indices for all other faces and the relative lengths of the lattice spacings.

## Miller Indices for directions

a = [100]
b = [010]

c = [001]
In between a and b? ab = [110]

[110] ?

Miller indices:
Negative numbers indicated by a bar above the numeral (e.g.: (001)) When using a variable or general MI, we name them hkl. In Hexagonal crystals, 4 MI (hkil) are often given: i = -h-k. Square braces (e.g.: [001]) for particular directions within a crystal. Round braces (e.g.: (001) describe a direction that is normal (perpendicular) to particular planes within a crystal. Curly braces (e.g.: {001}) describe a set of faces related by symmetry operations. This is called a crystal form (more later).

## Can you index the rest?

(1 1 0)

(2 1 0)
(1 0 0) a

b (0 1 0) (1 1 0) (2 1 0) (1 1 0)

(2 1 0)
(1 0 0) a

(1 0 0)

(2 1 0)

(2 1 0) (0 1 0) (1 1 0)

(1 1 0)

Crystal Forms

pinacoid

prism

pyramid

dipyramid

## Quartz = 2 forms: Hexagonal prism Hexagonal dipyramid

Herkimer diamond, Herkimer, NY.: Displays only or mostly the dipyramid.

Open

Closed

## Triclinic, Monoclinic, Orthorhombic

Pedion
Single face with no symmetrical equivalents

Dome
Two faces related by a mirror plane

Pinacoid
Two faces related by an inversion center

Sphenoid
Two faces related by 2-fold rotation

All open!
m

## How do you make a crystal out of open forms? Combine them

Triclinic
All pedions All pinacoids

Point group?

Monoclinic

## Dihedral faces (011), (110) (Sphenoids) Point group?

2/m

Combinations

Orthorhombic forms

## Important rotational forms:

Prism (open): A collection of 3, 4, 6, 8, or 12 faces that intersects a set of mutually parallel edges (a zone), forming a tube (open). Pyramid (open): A collection of 3, 4, 6, 8, or 12 nonparallel faces that can intersect at a point. The base is not part of the form. Dipyramid (closed): Two pyramids, one on each end of the crystal, related by reflection across the base of the pyramid.

Rotational forms:

## Here: Zone: (001) Zone Axis: [001]

Crystal Zone:
The plane normal to the intersection lines of a group of prismatic faces.

Trapezohedron
(Closed) Consists of 6, 8, or 12 faces, each of which is a trapezoid. the faces on top of the crystal are offset in relation to the ones on the bottom

Rhombohedron
(Closed) 6 faces, each of which is rhomb shaped: A rhomboherdon looks like a stretched or shortened cube.

3 2/m

Tetrahedron
(Closed) 4 Triangular faces. In the tetragonal case they are identical isosceles triangles, in the orthorhombic case they are pairs of different isosceles triangles. 42m 222 43m

Tetragonal forms

Scapolite 4/m

Chalcopyrite 43m

Trigonal forms

Dolomite

Quartz

Tourmaline

Calcite

Hexagonal forms

Nepheline 6

Apatite 6/m

## Beryl 6/m 2/m 2/m

Zincite 6mm

Isometric

Todays outline:
Stenos law Miller indices Continue 3D symmetry basics 32 Crystal classes (contd)

## Next time: The isometric system

Lecture 3

Crystal Systems
Triclinic System :

Lecture 3

Crystal Systems
Monoclinic System :

Lecture 3

Crystal Systems
Orthorhombic System :

Crystal Systems
Tetragonal System :

Lecture 3

Crystal Systems
Hexagonal System :

Crystal Systems
Isometric System :