You are on page 1of 22


What are cardiovascular diseases?

Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are a group of disorders of the heart and blood vessels (arteries, capillaries, and veins) or both. They include: coronary heart disease disease of the blood vessels supplying the heart muscle cerebrovascular disease ! disease of the blood vessels supplying the brain peripheral arterial disease disease of blood vessels supplying the arms and legs rheumatic heart disease damage to the heart muscle and heart valves from rheumatic fever, caused by streptococcal bacteria congenital heart disease ! malformations of heart structure e"isting at birth deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism blood clots in the leg veins, #hich can dislodge and move to the heart and lungs.

Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of deaths #orld#ide, though since the $%&'s, cardiovascular mortality rates have declined in many high!income countries. (t the same time, cardiovascular deaths and disease have increased at a fast rate in lo#! and middle!income countries. (lthough cardiovascular disease usually affects older adults, the antecedents of cardiovascular disease, notably atherosclerosis, begin in early life, ma)ing primary prevention efforts necessary from childhood. There is therefore increased emphasis on preventing atherosclerosis by modifying ris) factors, such as healthy eating, e"ercise, and avoidance of smo)ing tobacco.

What are the causes of cardiovascular disease?


cardiovascular disease can refer to many different types of heart or blood vessel problems: The term is often used to mean damage caused to your heart or blood vessel by atherosclerosis ( build up of fatty pla+ues in your arteries .this is a disease that affects your arteries (rteries are blood vessels that carry o"ygen and nutrients from your heart to the rest of your body. ,ealthy arteries are fle"ible and strong. -ver time ho#ever, too much pressure in your arteries can ma)e the #alls thic) and stiff sometimes restricting blood flo# to your organs and tissues .this process is called hardening of the arteries. (therosclerosis is the most common form of this disorder. (therosclerosis is also the most common cause of cardiovascular disease, and it.s often caused by an unhealthy diet, lac) of e"ercise ,being over#eight and smo)ing . (ll of these are ma/or ris) factors for developing atherosclerosis and in turn, cardiovascular disease.

What are the types of cardiovascular diseases?

Coronary artery disease (also )no#n as coronary heart disease and ischaemic heart disease) Cardiomyopathy ! diseases of cardiac muscle ,ypertensive heart disease ! diseases of the heart secondary to high blood pressure ,eart failure Cor pulmonale ! a failure at the right side of the heart #ith respiratory system involvement Cardiac dysrhythmias ! abnormalities of heart rhythm.


heart disease 1ndocarditis inflammation of the inner layer of the heart, the endocardium. The structures most commonly involved are the heart valves. 0nflammatory cardiomegaly 2yocarditis inflammation of the myocardium, the muscular part of the heart. Valvular heart disease Cerebrovascular disease ! disease of blood vessels that supplies to the brain such as stro)e 3eripheral arterial disease ! disease of blood vessels that supplies to the arms and legs Congenital heart disease ! heart structure malformations e"isting at birth 4heumatic heart disease ! heart muscles and valves damage due to rheumatic fever caused by streptococcal bacteria infections.

What are common symptoms of cardiovascular diseases?

-ften, there are no symptoms of the underlying disease of the blood vessels. ( heart attac) or stro)e may be the first #arning of underlying disease. 5ymptoms of a heart attac) include: pain or discomfort in the centre of the chest pain or discomfort in the arms, the left shoulder, elbo#s, /a#, or bac).

In addition the person may experience difficulty in breathing or shortness of breath; feeling sick or vomiting; feeling light-headed or faint; breaking into a cold sweat; and becoming pale. Women are more likely to have shortness of breath, nausea, vomiting, and back or jaw pain. he most common symptom of a stroke is sudden weakness of the face, arm, or leg, most often on one side of the body. !ther symptoms include sudden onset of" numbness of the face, arm, or leg, especially on one side of the body; confusion, difficulty speaking or understanding speech; difficulty seeing with one or both eyes; difficulty walking, di##iness, loss of balance or coordination; severe headache with no known cause; and fainting or unconsciousness. $eople experiencing these symptoms should seek medical care immediately

Symptoms of rheumatic heart disease

5ymptoms of rheumatic heart disease include: shortness of breath, fatigue, irregular heart beats, chest pain and fainting. 5ymptoms of rheumatic fever include: fever, pain and s#elling of the /oints, nausea, stomach cramps and vomiting.

What are the prevention of cardio vascular disease

The cause of most cardiovascular disease is a build!up of atheroma ! a fatty deposit #ithin the inside lining of arteries. There are lifestyle factors that can be ta)en to reduce the ris) of forming atheroma. These include not smo)ing choosing healthy foods a lo# salt inta)e regular physical activity )eeping your #eight and #aist si6e do#n drin)ing alcohol in moderation.

(ll people aged over 7' should have a cardiovascular health ris) assessment ! usually available at your 83 surgery. 1verybody has some ris) of developing small fatty lumps called atheroma. ,o#ever, certain ris) factors increase the ris). 4is) factors include: 9ifestyle ris) factors that can be prevented or changed: 5mo)ing. 9ac) of physical activity. -besity. (n unhealthy diet and eating too much salt. 1"cess alcohol. Treatable or partly treatable ris) factors: ,igh blood pressure (hypertension). 2edicines to lo#er blood pressure, or antihypertensives, are used to treat high blood pressure and have been sho#n to significantly reduce the number of deaths from heart attac)s and stro)e. ,igh cholesterol blood level. ,igh fat (triglyceride) blood level. Diabetes. :idney diseases causing diminished )idney function.

What is the cure of cardiovascular disease?

Cardiovascular medicines are )ey to preventing and treating cardiovascular disease (CVD). *ith appropriate medication, patients #ith CVD or those at ris) of the disease can improve their +uality of life and increase their life e"pectancy.

(ntithrombotic medicines act by preventing the formation of blood clots or by dissolving e"isting blood clots. These medicines are usually ta)en over a long period to reduce the ris) of heart attac) and death. They also reduce the ris) of subse+uent stro)es and disability among patients #ith a history of stro)e. 2edicines to lo#er blood pressure, or antihypertensive, are used to treat high blood pressure and have been sho#n to significantly reduce the number of deaths from heart attac)s.