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TABLE OF CONTENTS: Introduction to Pulp and Paper Industry Improvisation of the Industry Benefits of Hydro Power Small Hydro

ydro Power Plant Improvisation using Hydro Power Plant Innovations Introduced Regulations and Norms Sustainability Our Learnings References

Design of Small Hydro Power Plant for Pulp and Paper Industry
Shefali Gupta Shalak Joshi Deepa Kamat(TL) Sunny Krishnan Neha Kothari Sanya Kumari 13 15 17 19 21 23



Kraft Mill The Pulp and Paper Industry

A pulp mill is a manufacturing facility that converts wood chips or other plant fibre source into a thick fibre board which can be shipped to a paper mill for further processing. Pulp can be manufactured using mechanical, semi-chemical or fully chemical methods (kraft and sulphite processes). The finished product may be either bleached or non-bleached, depending on the requirements.




Energy Consumption







Air 100 million kgs of

toxic pollution each year in the US Air discharges from pulp mills contain hormonedisrupting and carcinogenic chemicals, such as chlorinated phenols, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and VOCs, which are among the most toxic substances known.


Tonnes of sludge produced per day, which is de-watered and then either land filled or burned Wood reaction products, spent cooking, bleaching chemicals, dissolved substances of chlorine compounds, fibers and solid inorganic compounds

More water than any industry for per ton production about 500 m3 Mill waste water continues to wreak havoc on surrounding ecosystems. In laboratory tests, mill effluent causes reproductive impairment in zooplankton, invertebrates (both these are food for fish), and shellfish


Changes for an Environment Friendly System

Repulping the rejected chips from filters.

Redesigning evaporation plant - making use of condensed water instead of fresh water from mill. Air emission control devices with spill containment and toxin collection. Light gas strippers and gas collection systems to remove foul smelling and hazardous pollution.

Alternative Fiber Pulp Mill - producing pulp for paper from the whole stalks of hemp, flax, kenaf, and agricultural waste, using no wood products at all.
Use of hydro powered plant for energy generation.



plants have a Long life Low operating cost Renewable source of energy In hydropower plants the source of energy is not destroyed unlike fossil fuel electricity. The pollution created by hydroelectric energy generation is quite minimal.


CO2 Emissions-Comparison

not produce radioactive waste Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions Energy saving Cost saving Clean fuel source Engineers can control the flow of water through the turbines to produce electricity on demand.


Small Hydro Power Plants

Size of project related not just to electrical capacity but also to whether low or high head
Typical Power Flow

Runner Diameter < 0.3 m


< 100 kW

< 0.4 m3/s


100 to 1,000 kW
1 to 50 MW

0.4 to 12.8 m3/s

> 12.8 m3/s

0.3 to 0.8 m
> 0.8 m

Minister of Natural Resources Canada 2001 2004.


Types of Small Hydro Projects


of grid

Isolated-grid or off-grid


of civil works (Site Specific)


No water storage Power varies with flow available from river: lower firm capacity


Higher firm capacity year-round Significant damming usually required



Small Hydro Plant (Run of the River)



Civil Works

Typically account for 60% of plant initial costs

Diversion dam or weir

Low dam of simple construction for run-of-river Concrete, wood, masonry Cost of dam alone can render project unviable

Water passage

Intake with trashrack and gate; tailrace at exit Excavated canal, underground tunnel and/or penstock Valves/gates at turbine entrance/exit, for maintenance

Power house

Houses turbine, mechanical, and electrical equipment




Scaled-down versions of large-hydro turbines can be used. In run-of-river, flow rate is quite variable

Turbine should function well over a range of flow rates or multiple turbines should be used

Best suitable turbine is the Reaction turbine: Francis, fixed pitch propeller, Kaplan

For low to medium head applications Submerged turbine uses water pressure and kinetic energy

Efficiency of 90% possible



Electrical and Other Equipment



Must be tied to other generators Use to feed electricity onto large grid


Can function in isolation from other generators For stand-alone and isolated-grid applications

Other equipment

Governing mechanism to match turbine to generator Valves, electronic controls, protection devices Transformer

Cost Estimation
Sl. No. I 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. I II III IV V VI



Particulars Works Preliminary Land Civil Works Building Plantation Maintenance Special T&P Communication Miscellaneous Electro-mechanical Equipment Transmission Line Environment and Ecology Sub Total (1 to 12) (I works) Establishment (6-8) % of I-Works excluding the cost of Land Ordinary T&P 1% of I-Works Losses on Stock 0.25% of C-Works Suspense, If any Receipt and Recoveries



Innovations in Pulp and Paper Industry


recovery for paper treatment Virtualization Technology Environmental stewardship is also one of the leading industry trends for the pulp and paper sector Nanotechnology concept Bio-refinery concept



Regulations and Norms

Legal and Regulatory Requirements and Applicable International Standards: Various specifications and guidelines of Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) and Ministry of Environment and forests (MoEF) are applicable: Performance Standard 1: Social and Environmental Assessment and Management System; Performance Standard 2: Labour and Working Conditions; Performance Standard 3: Pollution Prevention and Abatement; Performance Standard 4: Community Health, Safety and Security; Performance Standard 5: Land Acquisition and Involuntary Resettlement; Performance Standard 6: Biodiversity Conservation and Sustainable Natural Resource Management; Performance Standard 7: Indigenous Peoples; and Performance Standard 8: Cultural Heritage. IFCs safeguard policy on Safety of Dams (OP4.37) and International Waterways (OP7.50); Environment, Health and Safety (EHS) General Guidelines of IFC IS: 12800 (Part 3) 1991, Guidelines for selection of hydraulic turbine, preliminary dimensioning and layout of surface hydroelectric powerhouses. IS: 12837 1989, Hydraulic turbines for medium and large power houses guidelines for selection IEC: 1116 1992, Electromechanical equipment guide for small hydroelectric installations. IEC: 41 1991, Field acceptance tests to determine the hydraulic performance of hydraulic turbines, storage pumps and pump-turbines



Regulations and Norms

IEC: 193 1965, International code for model acceptance tests of hydraulic turbines. IEC: 545 1976, Guide for commissioning, operation and maintenance of hydraulic turbines. AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/E&M Works Guidelines for Selection of Turbine and 2 Governing System for Hydroelectric Projects IEC: 609 1978, Cavitation pitting evaluation in hydraulic turbines, storage pumps and pump-turbines. IEEE: 1207 2004, Guide for the application of turbine governing system for hydroelectric generating units. IEEE: 125 1996, Recommended practice for preparation of equipment specifications for speed governing of hydraulic turbines intended to drive electric generators United states department of the - Selecting Hydraulic Reaction Turbine Interior Bureau of Reclamation Engineering Monograph No. 20, Central Board of Irrigation & - Small Hydro Stations Standardization Power India Publication No. 175 - 1985, Central Board of Irrigation & - Manual on Planning and Design of Small Power India Publication No. Hydroelectric Schemes280 - 2001, Alternate Hydro Energy Centre 2005, Micro Hydro Quality Standard ASME 1996, Guide to Hydropower Mechanical Design (Book)



Sustainability-Economic Aspects


Provides low operating & maintenance costs Long life span of 50 to 100 years Meet load flexibility with reservoir Saves fuel and creates energy independence Provides a reliable source

High upfront investment Precipitation dependent Storage capacity of reservoirs may decrease due to sedimentation



Sustainability-Social Aspects


Less water available for other uses Provides flood protection Often enhances recreation facilities Provides opportunities for construction and operation with a large percentage of local manpower

May involve resettlement May restrict navigation Effects on livelihood of vulnerable social groups need to addressed



Sustainability-Environmental Aspects


Produces no atmospheric pollutants Neither pollutes nor consumes water Create new freshwater ecosystem with increased productivity Avoids depletion of nonrenewable resources

Barriers for fish migration Water quality needs to be monitored Introduction of pest species needs to be monitored Temporary introduction of methyl mercury into the food chain needs to be monitored



Our Learnings

Small hydro projects can provide electricity for central or isolated-grids and for remote power requirements. Hydro power is almost pollution free and also a renewable source of energy. The Hydro power plant is sustainable and highly effective in the long run. Run-of-river projects:

Lower cost & lower environmental impacts

But need back-up power on isolated grid

Initial costs high and 75% site specific



References Efficiency in Electric Energy, EURELECTRIC Preservation of Resources Working Groups Upstream Sub-Group in collaboration with VGB Natural Resources Canada, RETScreen International CPCB MoEF IS Handbook



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