Indian Initiative | Natural Environment | Conservation

INDIA‟S EFFORTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

India‟s Realization
• Failed to recognize & visualize the need • After Stockholm Conference • India‟s Fourth Plan (1969-1974)

Constitutional Provision
• Within 5yrs of Stockholm Conference • India amended constitution (42nd constitutional amendment to 1976) • To include „environment protection‟ as a constitutional obligation • „it shall be duty of every citizen of India to protect & improve the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers, & wildlife and to have compassion for living creatures‟

NCEPC
• National Committee on Environmental Planning & Commission • It was concerned with development projects, surveys of ecosystems, spread of environmental education etc

Protection‟ in the concurrent list of seventh schedule • Establishment of separate Dept. of Environment (Nov 1. 1980) . of India Recommendations of the committee: Introducing „Env.Tiwari Committee on Environment • • • • In 1980 Appointed by Govt.

NATIONAL COMMITTEE ON ENVIRONMENTAL PLANNING • Replaced NCEPC • Preparation of annual „State of Environmental Report‟ for the country • To sponsor environmental research • To propagate environmental awareness through mass media • Arranging public hearings & conferences .

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speedy responses in the event of accidents threatening environment & punishments to those Who endanger human Env. •To prevent & control pollution •As an aftermath of Bhopal Tragedy. handling of hazardous substances. safety & health.Environment (Protection) Act. regulation f discharge of pollutants. . 1986. 1984 The Environment (Protection) Act (EPA)1986 was passed for the protection of environment.

Policy Statement on Env. & Development • Laid down guidelines to weave environmental considerations into the fabric of national life & development process • Key words are conservation & sustainable development .

ENVIRONMENTAL MOVEMENTS IN INDIA .

The Narmada Dam in India .

one of the holiest rivers in the country of India “they say that even the site of the river will cleanse all of your sins” .The Narmada River Narmada means ‘ever-delightful’.

for municipal and industrial purposes – Provide a drainage system to carry away floodwaters – It will also take the land of 320.The Narmada Dam Project The first of the dams to be built is the Sardar Sarovar. the Sardar Sarovar Dam will do the following: – – – – Provide safe drinking water to 30 million people Irrigate 4. It is considered to be one of the most important dams in the project and the biggest water development project in India According to the government.300 cubic-meters of water per yr.000 people .8 million hectares of land Produce 550 megawatts of power Provide 1.

. . sedimentation).cost of mitigating social.best sites already taken -. more difficult sites left.only more remote. .Social and Economic Implications of Dams Relocation of communities: .impacts on health. social. & economic.delays . .problems encountered in building dams (ex.encouraged by dam projects (creating habitat for parasites). environmental impacts. cultural well-being Loss of community control over water: Diseases: Increasing cost of dams: - transfer of control from local level to central government or corporate control .

It was started by a social worker named Medha Patkar. .Opponents • Dalits and Adivasi (indigenous people). The movement started in 1986 when the World Bank lent India $450 million for the Sardar project. • Narmada Bachao Andolan. the Save the Narmada Movement (NBA). Many of these people are uneducated and very few can read and write. In accordance to their caste system they are often referred to as „untouchables‟. She is the representative for the NBA movement.

a social worker whose work with leprosy has earned him much respect in the country among the tribal people and government officials. Nobody can afford to. “Nobody builds Big Dams to provide drinking water to rural people. wrote a book about the Dams in India called „The Greater Common Good‟.” Arundhati Roy . • Baba Amte. Booker Prize-winning author supporter of the Save the Narmada Movement.Opponents • Arundhati Roy.

Proponents • Indian Government supports the building of dams • The World Bank supported the Sardar Sarovar Dam Project and loaned India $450 million. • The Supreme Court of India has ruled on the Sardar Sarovar Dam. In 1995 they suspended work on the dam because the height exceeded the amount originally planned. They withdrew from the project after an independent review confirmed social and environmental impacts were increasing. In 1999 they ordered work to continue up to the height of 85m. 2000 they ruled in favor of building the Sardar Sarovar despite global protests . 75m. Then in Oct 18.

a British anthropologist and Donald Gamble. • They sent in an independent review team headed by Hugh Brody.Why did the World Bank withdraw the loan? • It was a protest by the NBA called 'satyagraha' that caught the World Banks attention. . a Canadian environmental engineer.

water quality is affected because of change in land use can also affect aquatic life • Water logging – excess water in the soil and can render the soil useless.Environmental Impacts • Threat to aquatic habitat – barriers for fish passage. • Salinisation – when irrigation water has more saline content and adds more salt to the system. . This happens because the land to be irrigated is an arid area and not used to so much water. This could affect 40% of the area to be irrigated. This impacts the flora and fauna and makes the water not suitable for drinking.

which are prime locations for mosquitoes to breed. The shanty towns they move to have no running water and no plumbing. Authorities have suggested pesticides but there is concern for humans ingesting the pesticide. Another disease on the rise is TB because of the increasing number of people being moved out of their villages because of dams. .Health Impacts Outbreak of diseases – the concern of an increase in malaria because of the increased reservoirs and water logged lands.

.Social Impacts There was no social impacts assessment before the dam project started. One of the main problems that came up was the lack of communication between the state and the people who were to be affected by the project. The World Bank tried to do an assessment after the dam project started but found that there was a „severe shortage in baseline data‟.

The Chipko Movement .

• First Chipko action March 1974 in Reni village. .• Resistance to destruction of forests spread in the hills of Uttaranchal in1970‟s • Place of origin Gopeshwar in District Chamoli.

• The movement is best known for its tactic of hugging trees to prevent them being cut down and to prevent commercial timber harvesting.• Chipko means tree hugging or “embrace” as the villagers hugged the trees. . • Locally it is called as Angwal.

Chandi Prasad Bhatt of „Dasoli Gram Swarajya Sangh‟(DGSS) wanted to establish small industries using forest resources. • The local residents in Gopeshwar were denied the similar demand of getting few trees. • Mr. required for making farm tools. with an aim to provide job opportunities to local youth and check migration. .Background • Government's decision to allot forest trees to a sports goods company.

• Organized rallies to protect the forest from mass destruction. .Chandi Prasad Bhatt • Founder of Chipko movement.

” . When their men raise their axes.Chandi Prasad Bhatt . we will embrace the trees to protect them.“Let them know we will not allow the felling of a single tree.

• Mobilized village women for the movement when company men marched to cut the trees.The birth of chipko movement Gaura Devi (an elderly woman) • Head of the village Mahila Mangal Dal. .

Gaura Devi stood on way and declared: “The forest nurtures us like a mother.” . you will only be able to use your axes on it but you have to use them first on us.

its success and environmental impact. .The spreading of movement Sunder Lal Bahuguna (Environmentalist) • Enlightened the country and out world about the movement. • Padmabhushan winner for his contribution in the movement.

Sparking off of the movement • Chandi Prasad Bhatt • Sunder Lal Bahuguna • Sarla Bahen from Lakshmi Ashram • Women groups • the Uttarakahand Sangharsh Vahini (USV) .

• took part in different rallies and gatherings • highlighted the importance of trees in the life of human beings. • active in protecting the forests from auctions for commercial cuttings .

• Achieved a major victory in 1980 with a 15-year ban on green felling in the Himalayan forests • More than 1.00. • It stopped felling of trees in the Western Ghats and the Vindhyas. • Started protecting forest slopes and Restoring bare ones.Success of Chipko movement • The movement has spread to many states in the country. • Generated pressure for formulation of a natural resource policy. .000 trees have been saved from excavation.

over a million trees had been planted through their efforts. . • New methods of forest farming have been developed. • Villagers paid special attention in care of the trees and forest trees are being used judiciously. • By 1981. both to conserve the forests and create employment.Success of Chipko movement • Afterward environmental awareness increased dramatically in India.

Padma Bhusan Award .Recognition • Chandi Prasad Bhatt.Raman Megasessey award • Sunder Lal Bahuguna.

strategies. and motivations.As a diverse movement with diverse experiences. Chipko inspired environmentalists both nationally and globally and contributed substantially to the emerging philosophies of eco-feminism and deep ecology and fields of community-based conservation and sustainable mountain development. .

The Silent Valley Project • Initiation by Kerela Sastra Sahita Parishad • Against the hydroelectric project that would destroy forest land. project was scrapped in 1983 . home to rare & genetically rich evergreen forests • Dam on Kuntipuzha river • At instance of PM Indira Gandhi.

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in its broadest sense.NGO is a non-governmental organization and. is one that is not directly part of the structure of government In simple words Non-governmental organization: an organization that is not part of the local or state or federal government .

• • • • • • Mediators between govt & citizens Work at grassroot level Get funding from govt or charities Eg: world wide fund. Greenpeace Create websites for information Bring social reforms .

was wanting to dump its worn out oil ship. the oil giant.Greenpeace effort • Shell. the Brent Spar in North Sea • Greenpeace organized a boycott of service stations of Shell in Germany • Sales fell. they adopted another way of disposal of Brent Spar .

Sulabh International Social Service Organization is doing commendable work on Human Waste • Taiwan wanted to buy a piece of and in North Korea to dump its nuclear waste.• An Indian NGO. The Korean Federation of Environmental Movement opposed this move & succeeded .

.Apart from "NGO". private voluntary organizations. self-help organizations and non-state actors (NSA's). volunteer sector. grassroots organizations. transnational social movement organizations. often alternative terms are used as for example: independent sector. civil society.

A long list of acronyms has developed around the term "NGO".Non-governmental organizations are a heterogeneous group. . INTERNATIONAL NGO. ENGO: ENVIRONMENTAL NGO. CSO: INGO: CIVIL SOCIETY ORGANISATION. DONGO: DONOR ORGANIZED NGO.

CENTRAL POLLUTION CONTROL BOARD ECO WRIST WATCH GUJARAT POLLUTION CONTROL BOARD THE ENERGY AND RESOURCES INSTITUITE ENVIRONMENT ORGNIZATION AND RESOURCES PRESONS IN TAMIL NADU .

The World Trade Organization (WTO) UN Development Programme (UNDP) The World Food Programme (WFP) World Health Organization (WHO) UN Educational. Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) UN Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) .

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