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What are the roots?

What are the roots that clutch, what branches grow
Out of this stony rubbish? Son of man, You cannot say, or guess, for you know only A heap of broken images, where the sun beats

he ri!er"s tent is broken# the last fingers of leaf $lutch an% sink into the wet bank& he win% $rosses the brown lan%, unhear%& he nymphs are %eparte%& ' iresias, though blin%, throbbing between two li!es, Ol% man with wrinkle% female breasts, can see At the !iolet hour, the e!ening hour that stri!es (omewar%, an% brings the sailor home from sea, he typist home at teatime, clears her breakfast, light (er sto!e, an% lays out foo% in tins&

)I can connect nothing with nothing*

' can connect +othing with nothing& he broken fingernails of %irty han%s& ,y people humble people who e-pect +othing&" la la o $arthage then ' came .urning burning burning burning O /or% hou pluckest me out O /or% hou pluckest burning

)Shall I at least set

! lan"s in or"er?#

' sat upon the shore 0ishing, with the ari% plain behin% me Shall ' at least set my lan%s in or%er?


)The sacre" s)ace* implies1 ac2uiring a )fi-e% point* orientation in the homogenous chaos )creation of the Worl%* an% real li!ing $The )ro*ane s)ace# implies lack of orientation an% no )fi-e% point*1 Actually, there is no )Worl%* any more, but only some fragments of a uni!erse shattere% to pieces, an amorphous mass ma%e up of an infinite number of more or less )neutral* )places* within which the person mo!es goa%e% by the responsibilities of an e-istence integrate% in an in%ustrial society& ,ircea 3lia%e, Sacrul si profanul, 4r% 3%ition, (umanitas, .ucuresti, 5667, p& 58, my translation

The sterilit! o* the in"i+i",al


Accor%ing to 3lia%e, the archaic man use% to be essentially creati!e because any creation repeats the cosmogonic act par excellence1 the $reation of the Worl% 9The Myth of the Eternal Return, p& 5:; he sacred is the real par e-cellence& 9Sacrul si profanul, p& 7:; .y contrast, nothing in the sphere of the profane partakes of .eing, because the profane was not ontologically foun%e% on myth, an% it %oes not ha!e an e-emplary mo%el& 9Sacrul si profanul, p& 7:; he mo%ern in%i!i%ual fails to be acti!e in history, for this history either generates itself or it ten%s to be generate% by a number of people whose circle grows smaller an% smaller, making each in%i!i%ual incessantly li!e in terror of history& 9The Myth of the Eternal Return, p& 8<6;& herefore, the mo%ern in%i!i%ual is much less free an% creati!e than the archaic man&

E- M- %orster#s )air. $the Seen# an" $the /nseen#

'n Howards End $the seen# is a form of har% $non0realit!# clustere% aroun% the cit! an" the otor car1 ,argaret felt their whole =ourney from /on%on ha% been unreal& hey ha% no part with the earth an% its emotions& hey were %ust, an% a stink, an% cosmopolitan chatter, an% the girls whose cat ha% been kille% >by the car? ha% li!e% more %eeply than they&* $h& 5<, ,argaret*s trip by car to Oniton he characters who carry the philistine )!alues* of money, business, mo%ern property, car spee%, mo%ern progress are the Wilco1es he )panic an% emptiness*, )telegrams an% anger*, )noma%ic ci!ili@ation* of the )Satanic*city is counter pointe% by the $,nseen# transgressi!e an%rogynous spirit of the ho,se an" w!ch0el , grass an% )crop of hay* of (owar%s 3n%& he character who embo%ies this spirit1 is R,th Wilco1, who passes on her !alues to her )spiritual heir ,argaret Schlegel&


,ch o* the sacre" is there le*t *or the o"erns?

WillyAnilly, the profane in%i!i%ual still preser!es traces of the religious in%i!i%ual*s beha!iour, though they are emptie% of any religious significance& Whate!er he may %o, he inherits something an% cannot abolish his past, being its pro%uct& he man without religion is ma%e of a series of %enials an% refusals, but he continues to be obsesse% by the realities he %iscar%e%& 'n or%er to ha!e a worl% of his own, he %esacralise% the worl% of his ancestors, being thus force% to a%opt a beha!iour which runs contrary to the pre!ious one, but whose imminent outburst, un%er one form or another, he feels %eep within himself& 9Sacrul si profanul, p& 8<:;


he mo%erns ha% a ten%ency to reintegrate historical time in a cosmic, cyclical an% infinite time&

3lia%e argues that the work of & S& 3liot an% of Bames Boyce is replete with the nostalgia of the myth of the eternal return an% e!entually the nostalgia of abolishing time& 9Myth of the Eternal Return, p& 8:C;

The Waste Land

An% upsi%e %own in air were towers olling reminiscent bells, that kept the hours An% !oices singing out of empty cisterns an% e-hauste% wells& 'n this %ecaye% hole among the mountains 'n the faint moonlight, the grass is singing O!er the tumble% gra!es, about the chapel here is the empty chapel, only the win%"s home& 't has no win%ows, an% the %oor swings, Dry bones can harm no one&

M!th re+isite"
& S& 3liot took the title, the plan an% much of the symbolism of The Waste and from Bessie /& Weston"s book on the Erail legen% !rom Ritual to Romance& (e was also in%ebte% to Bames Eeorge 0ra@er*s The "olden #ough, a book which influence% his generation profoun%ly& Bames Boyce re!isite% classic Ereek mythology in $ %ortrait an% &lysses an% $eltic mythology in !innegan's Wa(e D& (& /awrence*s The Rainbow an% Women in o)e are replete with mythical allusions an% references# 3nglan%, ,y 3nglan% is coloure% by nostalgia for a heathen AngloA Sa-on cultural past& F& Woolf*s theory of the an%rogynous min% was un%erpinne% by the myth of an%rogyny as spiritual perfection& W&.& Yeats %rew on ancient 'rish myths an% legen%s in or%er to create a mo%ern 'rish literature&

$lassic Ereek culture, a mythical past of 3nglan% an% a (in%u !ersion of the myth of the eternal return counterpoint the complacent .ritish mi%%le classes in 3& ,& 0orster*s $ %assage to *ndia&


!thologies o* North an" So,th

3& ,& 0orster*s he Story of a Ganic an% his )'talian no!els* Where $ngels !ear to Tread an% $ Room with a +iew Fision became more optical, less int,iti+e2loo3 at Englan"4 Hogarth, Re!nol"s, 'ains5oro,gh, the! are all alrea"! 5o,rgeois& he coat is really more important than the man& 't is ama@ing how important clothes su%%enly become, how they co!er the sub=ectH D& (& /awrence, 'ntro%uction to hese Gaintings II want to go so,th, where there is no autumn, where the col% %oesn"t crouch o!er one like a snow leopar% waiting to pounce& The heart o* the North is "ea", an" the *ingers o* col" are cor)se *ingers&I A D&(& /awrence, /etter to Bohn ,i%%leton ,urry 9October 8J5:;

Englishness 6 D- H- (awrence an" E- M- %orster

' cannot free myself from the con!iction that something irreplaceable has been %estroye%, an% that a little piece of 3nglan% has %ie% as surely as if a bomb ha% hit it& ' won%er what compensation there is in the worl% of the spirit, for the %estruction of the life here, a life of tra%ition& 3& ,& 0orster, Two ,heers for -emocracy

his is history& One 3nglan% blots out another& he miners ha% ma%e the halls wealthy& +ow they were blotting them out, as they ha% alrea%y blotte% out the cottages& he in%ustrial 3nglan% blots out the agricultural 3nglan%& One meaning blots out another& An% the continuity is not organic, but mechanical& D& (& /awrence, ady ,hatterley's o)er

Englishness 6 D- H- (awrence#s $S)irit o* Place# +s- $the Worl" o* &,siness7

he sunlight bla@e% %own upon the earth, there was a +i+i"ness o* *la ! +egetation, of *ierce secl,sion a i" the sa+age )eace o* the co ons& Strange how the sa+age Englan" lingers in )atches1 as here, ami% these shaggy gorse commons, an% marshy, snake infeste% places near the foot of the south %owns& The s)irit o* )lace lingering on )ri e+al, as when the Sa1ons ca e, so long ago& 93nglan%, ,y 3nglan%; 3gbert*s blue eyes ha% a to,ch o* the Vi3ing in the & Winifre%, too, see e" to co e o,t o* the ol" Englan"& 93nglan%, ,y 3nglan%;

(e lo!e% his wife, his cottage an% gar%en& (e woul% make his life there, as a sort of epicurean hermit& He lo+e" the )ast, the ol" ,sic an" "ances an" c,sto s o* ol" Englan"& He wo,l" tr! an" li+e in the s)irit o* these, not in the s)irit o* the worl" o* 5,siness& 93nglan%, ,y 3nglan%;

8His heart went 5ac3 to the sa+age ol" s)irit o* the )lace. the "esire *or ol" go"s, ol", lost )assions, the passion of the col%Abloo%e%,%arting snakes that hisse% an% shot away from him, the mystery of bloo%Asacrifices, all the lost, intense sensations of the prime!al people of the place, whose passions seethe% in the air still, *ro those long "a!s 5e*ore the Ro ans ca e& he seethe of a lost, %ark passion in theair& he presence of unseen snakes& 93nglan%, ,y 3nglan%;

A white "ragon is a national s! 5ol o* Englan" an" ,se" 5! an! as the tr,e *lag o* the Anglo Sa1on English- In this sense the "ragon is a g,ar"ian o* English lan", )eo)le an" heritageFarious accounts of the times recor% many battles between armies carrying the $eltic .ritish Ke% Dragon .anner 9now the Welsh Dragon; an% the White Dragon 0lag of the Sa-ons, Angles an% Butes 9the 3nglish Dragon;& he White Dragon was, an% still is, the emblem of Wesse-, the territory of the West Sa-ons an% the 3nglish Ling, Alfre% the Ereat&

Englishness 6 E- M- %orster#s Englan" 5etween Prose an" Passion

8Onl! connect4 That was the whole o* her ser on- Onl! connect the )rose an" the )assion, an" 5oth will 5e e1alte", an" h, an lo+e will 5e seen at its height- (i+e in *rag ents no longer- Onl! connect, an" the 5east an" the on3, ro55e" o* the isolation that is li*e to either, will "ie-7 Howards End, $h& 55 Here is the heart o* o,r islan"1 the $hilterns, the +orth Downs, the South Downs ra%iate hence& he fibres of 3nglan% unite in Wiltshire, an% %i% we con%escen% to worship her, here we shoul% erect our national shrine& The ongest .ourney, $h& 88

The North Downs

he North Downs are a ri%ge of chalk hills in south east 3nglan% that stretch from 0arnham in Surrey to the White $liffs of Do!er in Lent&

The So,th Downs

he So,th Downs is a range of chalk hills that e-ten%s for about 5C6 s2uare miles 9C76 km5; across the southAeastern coastal counties of 3nglan% from the 'tchen Falley of (ampshire in the west to .eachy (ea%, near 3astbourne, 3ast Susse-, in the east& 't is boun%e% on its northern si%e by a steep escarpment, from whose crest there are e-tensi!e !iews northwar%s across the Weal%&

$The 9entre o* the Worl"#

,ircea 3lia%e argues that the consecration of the centre of the worl% was the result of a 5reach into the ho ogeneit! o* the le+els achie!e% through a hiero)han!1 hus we fin% oursel!es confronte% with a chain of religious conceptions an% cosmological images which, linke% together, make up a system that may be calle% the tra%itional societies* )Worl" s!ste *1 a; a sacre% place is a breach into the homogeneity of space# b; this breach is represente% by an )opening* which allows passage from one cosmic region to another 9from the Sky to the 3arth an% the other way roun%1 from the 3arth to the un%erworl%; c; the communication with the Sky is achie!e% through a certain number of images which all gra!itate aroun% the $xis mundi1 pole 9see uni)ersalis columna;, stairway 9see Bacob*s la%%er;, mountain, tree, liana, etc& %; the )Worl%* 9M)our worl%*; is e!erywhere aroun% the cosmic a-is, therefore the a-is is )in the mi%%le*, in the omphalos, it is the $entre of the Worl%* Sacrul si profanul, pp/ 01203, my translation

&o"!, Ho,se, 9os os 6 E- M%orster#s Howards End

he religious in%i!i%ual cannot li!e but in an *open* worl% because he wishes to be at a )$entre*, where he is gi!en the chance to communicate with the go%s& (is %welling place is a microAcosmos, =ust as his bo%y is& he houseA bo%yA$osmos assimilation appears fairly early in time& o them (owar%s 3n% was a house1 they coul% not know that to her it ha% been a spirit, for which she sought a spiritual heir& Howards End, $h& 88 hen there*s a !ery big wychAelm N to the left as you look up N leaning a little o!er the house, an% stan%ing on the boun%ary between the gar%en an% the mea%ow& OHO H,rs Wilcotrailing in beautiful %resses %own long corri%orsH Howards End, $h& 8

Sacrul si profanul, pp& 85JA 846, my translation

(on"on 6 $a no a"ic ci+ili:ation#

't goes without saying that all these e-periences are inaccessible to the aA religious in%i!i%ual, not only because %eath has been %eAsacralise% for him but also because he no longer li!es in a $osmos as such an% thus no longer reali@es that ha!ing a )bo%y* an% %welling a house is the e2ui!alent of assuming an e-istential state in the $osmos&
Sacrul si profanul, p&848, my translation

Day an% night the ri!er flows into 3nglan%, %ay after %ay the sun retreats into the Welsh mountains, an% the tower chimes1 )See the $on2uering (ero&* .ut the Wilco-es ha!e no part in the place, nor in any place& 't is not their names that recur in the parish register& 't is not their ghosts that sigh among the al%ers at e!ening& hey ha!e swept into the !alley an% swept out of it, lea!ing a little %ust an% a little money behin%& Howards End, $h& 5J

Archet!)es in The Rainbow I

As they lay close together, complete an% beyon% the touch of time or change, it was as if they were at the !ery centre of all the slow wheeling of space an% the rapi% agitation of life, %eep, %eep insi%e them all, at the centre where there is utter ra%iance, an% eternal being, an% the silence absorbe% in praise1 the stea%y core of all mo!ements, the unawakene% sleep of all wakefulness& hey foun% themsel!es there, an% they lay still, in each other*s arms# for their moment they were at the heart of eternity, whilst time roare% far off, fore!er far off, towar%s the rim& hen gra%ually they were passe% away from the supreme centre, %own the circles of praise an% =oy an% gla%ness, further an% further out, towar%s the noise an% the friction& .ut their hearts ha% burne% an% were tempere% by the inner reality, they were unalterably gla%& Era%ually they began to wake up, the noises outsi%e became more real& hey un%erstoo% an% answere% the call outsi%e& hey counte% the strokes of the bell& An% when they counte% mi%%ay, they un%erstoo% that it was mi%%ay, in the worl%, an% for themsel!es also&

Archet!)es in The Rainbow II

8An% ' will establish my co!enant with you# neither shall all flesh be cut off any more by the waters of a floo%# neither shall there any more be a floo% to %estroy the earth& >;<? An% Eo% sai%, his is the token of the co!enant which ' make between me an% you an% e!ery li!ing creature that is with you, for perpetual generations1 >;=? ' %o set my bow in the clou%, an% it shall be for a token of a co!enant between me an% the earth& >;>? An% it shall come to pass, when ' bring a clou% o!er the earth, that the bow shall be seen in the clou%1 >;?? An% ' will remember my co!enant, which is between me an% you an% e!ery li!ing creature of all flesh# an% the waters shall no more become a floo% to %estroy all flesh& >;@? An% the bow shall be in the clou%# an% ' will look upon it, that ' may remember the e!erlasting co!enant between Eo% an% e!ery li!ing creature of all flesh that is upon the earth& >;A? An% Eo% sai% unto +oah, his is the token of the co!enant, which ' ha!e establishe% between me an% all flesh that is upon the earth& #oo( of "enesis, $hapter J, Ling Bames !ersion;

An% the rainbow stoo% on the earth& She knew that the sor%i% people who crept har%Ascale% an% separate on the face of the worl%*s corruption were li!ing still, that the rainbow was arche% in their bloo% an% woul% 2ui!er to life in their spirit, that they woul% cast off their horny co!ering of %isintegration, that new, clean, nake% bo%ies woul% issue to a new germination, to a new growth, rising to the light an% the win% an% the clean rain of hea!en& She saw in the rainbow the earth*s new architecture, the ol%, brittle corruption of houses an% factories swept away, the worl% built up in a li!ing fabric of truth, fitting to the o!erAarching hea!en& The Rainbow

D& (& /awrence*s Gtterdmmerung

Well, if mankin% is %estroye%, if our race is %estroye% like So%om, an% there is this beautiful e!ening with the luminous lan% an% trees, ' am satisfie%& hat which informs it all is there, an% can ne!er be lost& After all, what is mankin% but =ust one e-pression of the incomprehensible& An% if mankin% passes away, it will only mean that this particular e-pression is complete% an% %one& hat which is e-presse%, an% that which is to be e-presse%, cannot be %iminishe%& here it is, in the shining e!ening& /et mankin% pass away N time it %i%& he creati!e utterances will not cease, they will only be there& (umanity %oesn*t embo%y the utterance of the incomprehensible any more& (umanity is a %ea% letter& here will be a new embo%iment, in a new way& /et humanity %isappear as 2uick as possible& Kupert .irkin*s pri!ate thoughts in Women in o)e .irkin watche% the country, an% was fille% with a sort of hopelessness& (e always felt this, on approaching /on%on& (is %islike of mankin%, of the mass of mankin%, amounte% almost to an illness& Women in o)e

H-D M!steries Re ain he mysteries remain, ' keep the same cycle of see%Atime an% of sun an% rain# Demeter in the grass, ' multiply, renew an% bless .acchus in the !ine# ' hol% the law, ' keep the mysteries true, the first of these to name the li!ing, %ea%# ' am the wine an% brea%& * (eep the law, * hold the mysteries true, * am the )ine, the branches, you, and you/

The %,t,re o* 'o"s

+othing can be pre%icte%& .ut ' %on*t think that certain primor%ial re!elations coul% %isappear& 3!en in the most technologically %e!elope% society, there is something unalterable1 for there is %ay an% night, winter time an% summer time& 3!en in a treeless city there is the sky with its stars, an% man can see the stars an% the moon anyway& As long as there*s %ay an% night, winter an% summer, ' think man cannot be altere%& We are, against our will, integrate% in this cosmic rhythm& OHO he least religious person li!es by this rhythm OHO '*m sure other e-pressions will follow& What are those? ' coul%n*t say& he big surprise is always the free%om of spirit an% its creati!ity& ,ircea 3lia%e, 4rdeal by abyrinth, p& 864, my translation

Archet!)es. ',"r,n 0 Magna MaterB 'eral" 9rich 6 9ain, a Ni5el,ng, !o,ng Her es
Puickly he pulle% off his =acket, pulle% loose his black tie, an% was unfastening his stu%s, which were hea%e% each with a pearl& She listene%, watching, hoping no one woul% hear the starche% linen crackle& 't seeme% to snap like pistolAshots& (e ha% come for !in%ication& She let him hol% her in his arms, clasp her close against him& (e foun% in her an infinite relief& 'nto her he poure% all his pentAup %arkness an% corrosi!e %eath, an% he was whole again& 't was won%erful, mar!elous, it was a miracle& his was the e!erArecurrent miracle of his life, at the knowle%ge of which he was lost in an ecstasy of relief an% won%er& An% she, sub=ect, recei!e% him as a !essel fille% with his bitter potion of %eath& She ha% no power at this crisis to resist& he terrible frictional !iolence of %eath fille% her, an% she recei!e% it in an ecstasy of sub=ection, in throes of acute !iolent sensation& As he %rew nearer to her, he plunge% %eeper into her en!eloping soft warmth, a won%erful creati!e heat that penetrate% his !eins an% ga!e him life again& (e felt himself %issol!ing an% sinking to rest in the bath of her li!ing strength& 't seeme% as if her heart in her breast were a secon% uncon2uerable sun, into the glow an% creati!e strength of which he plunge% further an% further& All his !eins, that were mur%ere% an% lacerate%, heale% softly as life came pulsing in, stealing in!isibly in to him as if it were the allApowerful effluence of the sun& (is bloo%, which seeme% to ha!e been %rawn back into %eath, came ebbing on the return, surely, beautifully, powerfully& (e felt his limbs growing fuller an% fle-ible with life, his bo%y gaine% an unknown strength& (e was a man again, strong an% roun%e%& An% he was a chil%, so soothe% an% restore% an% full of gratitu%e& An% she, she was the great bath of life, he worshippe% her& ,other an% substance of all life she was& An% he, chil% an% man, recei!e% of her an% was ma%e whole& (is pure bo%y was almost kille%& .ut the miraculous, soft effluence of her breast suffuse% o!er him, o!er his seare%, %amage% brain, like a healing lymph, like a soft, soothing flow of life itself, perfect as if he were bathe% in the womb again& Women in o)e

Virginia Wool*#s An"rog!n!

The an"rog!no,s in" is ,nite", butQ heterogeneo,s an% creati+el! sel*0)er)et,ating& Woolf highlights this point by asking1 What "oes one ean 5! $the ,nit! o* the in"#? H for clearly the min% has so great a power of concentrating at any point at any moment that it seems to ha!e no single state of being& 't can separate itself from the people in the streetH Or it can think with other people spontaneously& 9$ Room of 4ne's 4wn; The an"rog!no,s rh!th in Woolf*s writing is most e!i%ent in sections of Mrs -alloway, To The ighthouse an% The Wa)es in which Woolf uses free in%irect %iscourse& +ancy opping .a@in actually %raws a %iagram of the )attern o* Mrs Dalloway which *or s the i age o* wa+es alternating 5etween "i**erent in"s an" "i**erent locationsElaine Showalter calls an"rog!n! a 8 !th that hel)e" her e+a"e con*rontation with her own )ain*,l *e aleness an" ena5le" her to cloa3 an" re)ress her anger an" a 5ition-7

The )erils o* an"rog!n!

/isa Ka%o uses the comparison between the characters Orlan%o an% Kho%a to illustrate how an"rog!n!, witho,t a strong sense o* the 5o"!, act,all! ca,ses insanit! an" "eath1 Kho%a N like Orlan%o N becomes so alienate% from her physical self that she can only be ma%e aware of it by slamming herself against a %oor N or a tree& .y suggesting that this selfAalienation is the source of Kho%a*s 9an% Orlan%o*s; ma%ness an% suici%e, Woolf e-poses their 8an"rog!n!7 as a 3in" o* *e ale castration, a *orce" lac3, a reC,isite s,5li ation that )reci)itates a terri*!ing +oi" o* se1less a5sence& /isa Ka%o, )Woul% the Keal Firginia Woolf Glease Stan% Rp? 0eminist $riticism, the An%rogyny Debates an% 4rlando*, Women's Studies 5C 9April 8JJ7;, http1OO infotrac&galegroup&com

Do!ce#s M!tho)oeic %iction 6 A Portrait

he Ereek myth of Dae"al,s in $ %ortrait Stephen is also a 9hrist an% a (,ci*eric figure 9see Da!i% /o%ge*s arguments in Boyce*s $hoices; Not onl! has Ste)hen reali:e" his na esa3e, 5,t he has create" his own !th- (is =ourney en%e% in the creation of an artist& Ste)hen has 5eco e a !th o* creation hi sel*- He ac3nowle"ges that he 5elongs to the race o* !thological *ig,res that ca e 5e*ore hi & he Ibir% girlI primarily represents three !thological *ig,res& She is1 E,ro)a ri%ing the bull# 3uropa was a beautiful mai%en that caught the eye of the king of the go%s& Pasi)hae an% her encounter with the bull, an% also the lo+e0go""ess A)hro"ite& he girl signifies the birth of ,inos, who was a spawn of Seus&

Do!ce#s M!tho)oeic %iction 0 lysses

/l!sses is *or e not onl! the )rotot!)e o* the o"ern an, 5,t also o* the an loo3ing *orwar" into the *,t,re, 5eca,se he is the t!)e o* the restless tra+eller & (is =ourney is a Eo,rne! towar"s the centre, towar%s 'thaca, in other wor"s towar"s hi sel*& (e is a goo% sailor, but fate N or rather the series of initiations which he must turn into !ictories N always forces him to %elay his return& ' think the myth of Rlysses is !ery important for us& There will alwa!s 5e a /l!sses in an! o* ,s# like him we look for our sel!es, hoping to fin% that, an% then, of course, returning to our country, our home, we fin% oursel!es again& ,ircea 3lia%e, 4rdeal by abyrinth, p& T<, my translation

The (a5!rinth
'n general, one li!es life in fragments& One %ay, in $hicago, passing by the 'nstitute of Oriental Stu%ies, ' felt the continuity of this time which begins with my a%olescence an% continues in 'n%ia, /on%on, an% the rest& 't is an encouraging e-perience1 you feel you ha!en*t waste% your time, you ha!en*t waste% your life& 3!erything connects, e!en the perio%s ' use% to consi%er unimportant, like, for instance, the military ser!ice, which sank into obli!ion, e!erything connects, an% all of a su%%en we see we*!e been le% by a purpose N an orientatio/5 ,ircea 3lia%e, 4rdeal by abyrinth, p& 8<T, my translation

&ac3 to the Roots

Disco!ering the profoun% unity that e-ists between the aboriginal 'n%ian culture, the culture in the .alkans an% the culture of the agricultural communities in Western 3urope ' felt at home& Stu%ying certain myths, certain techni2ues, ' saw they applie% in 3urope as well as they applie% in Asia& ' ne!er ha% the slightest sense of the e-otic& Seeing the folk tra%itions in 'n%ia, ' coul% trace the patterns of folk tra%itions in 3urope& ' think that helpe% me a lot to un%erstan% that .rUncuVi %i% not copy the creations of Komanian folk art& On the contrary, he went to the !ery source that inspire% the Komanian or Ereek peasants an% re%isco!ere% this e-traor%inary !ision of a person to whom the stone or the rock e-ist, we might say, in a hierophanic >i&e& manifestation of the sacre%? way& (e foun%, from within, the uni!erse of !alues create% by the archaic humans& 'n%ee%, 'n%ia helpe% me to un%erstan% the importance, the Komanian spirit an% at the same time the uni!ersal spirit of .rUncuVi*s creation& 'f you %o return to the sources, to the roots that go as far as the +eolithic, then you are !ery Komanian, or !ery 0rench, an% uni!ersal at the same time& ' ha!e always been fascinate% by this 2uestion1 how coul% we reco!er the fun%amental unity if not of the human e-ceptional spirit >3lia%e uses the wor% genius?, at least of a certain un%i!i%e% ci!ili@ation in 3urope*s past? .rUncuVi manage% to reco!er itH& So you seeH the cycle of my formation by 'n%ia en%s on the note of this %isco!ery an% this 2uestion& ,ircea 3lia%e, 4rdeal by abyrinth, p& <7, my translation

Grimiti!ism an% mo%ernism

A boom in the stu%y of anthropology ma%e the mo%ernists1 C,estion their own ci+ili:ation but also loo3 "own ,)on $)ri iti+is # as $low# art an" $5ar5aric# c,lt,re he first impact an% early history of primiti!ism is %escribe% by Eertru%e Stein in $utobiography of $lice #/ To(las6 $t the time 73819: negro sculpture had been well (nown to curio hunters but not to artists/ Who first recogni;ed its potential )alue for the modern artist * am sure * do not (now/ <=< *n any case it was Matisse who was influenced , not so much in his painting but in his sculpture, by the $frican statues, and it was Matisse who drew %icasso's attention to it >ust after %icasso had finished painting "ertrude Stein's portrait/5 2 watch An Art Gortfolio of Grimiti!ism 9appro-& T mins&; an% Eauguin1 ,aker of ,yth 9<1:C; on You ube Koger 0ry %isco!ere% $W@anne*s primiti!ist works in 8J6C, an% he argue%1 Why shoul% >the artist?Hwillfully return to the primiti!e, or as it is %erisi!ely calle%, barbaric art? he answer is that it isHsimply necessary, if art is to be rescue% from the hopeless encumbrance of its own accumulations of science# if art is to regain its power to e-press emotional i%eas&

Koger 0ry an% Grimiti!ism

0ry praise% primiti!e art for 2ualities .ritish art ha% lost o!er centuries1 )%irectness of !ision* an% )complete free%om* 'n his search for )!itality*, )sincerity* an% )spontaneity*, 0ry turne% to the 0rench 'mpressionists, an% 'slamic, .y@antine an% primiti!e art&

'n +o!& 8J86 0ry opene% the first GostA'mpressionist e-hibition, Eauguin*s ahitian paintings being the most pro!ocati!e part of the show& Gicasso an% ,atisse, the most aggressi!e an% inno!ati!e primiti!i@ers, %ominate% the secon% GostA'mpressionist e-hibition, in 8J85& his time, apart from the 0rench GostA'mpressionists, 0ry inclu%e% 88 3nglish GostA'mpressionists an% se!eral Kussian a!antAgar%e artists& Sergei Diaghile!*s company ha% alrea%y performe% in /on%on in 8J88, featuring %ances of the Golo!tsi, a noma%ic urkic people who inhabite% the central 3urasian steppe between the 88th an% 84th centuries&

Virginia Wool*#s res)onse to )ri iti+is an" the R,ssian cra:e

Woolf atten%e% se!eral performances of the .allets Kusses an% was welll aware of the fashions inspire% by Oriental motifs in Diagile!*s pro%uctions& She appeare% at a fancyA%ress party costume% as $leopatra& She was closely ac2uainte% with the Kussian ballerina /y%ia /opoko!a, who marrie% Bohn ,aynar% Leynes in 8J5<& Keferences to the Kussian .allet appear in se!eral of Woolf*s no!els1 The +oyage 4ut 98J8<;, The ?ears 98J47;, an% #etween the $cts 98J:8;& 3!elyn (aller argues that the soun% of the great beast stamping on the shore hear% by /ouis throughout The Wa)es resembles the collecti!e soun% of the stamping feet of the %ancers in 'gor Stra!insky*s ballets& (er Puill Drawn from the 0irebir%1 Firginia Woolf an% the Kussian Dancers

V- Wool* st,nne" 5! the R,ssian so,l

'n rea%ing cheko! we fin% oursel!es repeating the wor% soul again an% again& 't sprinkles his pages& Ol% %runkar%s use it freely# & & & you are high up in the ser!ice, beyon% all reach, but ha!en*t real soul, my %ear boy & & & there*s no strength in it& 'n%ee%, it is the soul that is the chief character in Kussian fiction& Delicate an% subtle in cheko!, sub=ect to an infinite number of humours an% %istempers, it is of greater %epth an% !olume in Dostoe!sky# it is liable to !iolent %iseases an% raging fe!ers, but still the pre%ominant concern& Gerhaps that is why it nee%s so great an effort on the part of an 3nglish rea%er to rea% he .rothers Larama@o! or he Gossesse% a secon% time& he soul is alien to him& 't is e!en antipathetic& 't has little sense of humour an% no sense of come%y& 't is formless& 't has slight connection with the intellect& 't is confuse%, %iffuse, tumultuous, incapable, it seems, of submitting to the control of logic or the %iscipline of poetry& he no!els of Dostoe!sky are seething whirlpools, gyrating san%storms, waterspouts which hiss an% boil an% suck us in& hey are compose% purely an% wholly of the stuff of the soul& Against our wills we are %rawn in, whirle% roun%, blin%e%, suffocate%, an% at the same time fille% with a gi%%y rapture& Out of Shakespeare there is no more e-citing rea%ing& We open the %oor an% fin% oursel!es in a room full of Kussian generals, the tutors of Kussian generals, their stepA%aughters an% cousins, an% crow%s of miscellaneous people who are all talking at the tops of their !oices about their most pri!ate affairs& he Kussian Goint of Fiew in The ,ommon Reader

Wool*#s )raise o* R,ssian e1)ression

't is the soul that matters, its passion, its tumult, its astonishing me%ley of beauty an% !ileness& An% if our !oices su%%enly rise into shrieks of laughter, or if we are shaken by the most !iolent sobbing, what more natural?X it har%ly calls for remark& he pace at which we are li!ing is so tremen%ous that sparks must rush off our wheels as we fly& ,oreo!er, when the spee% is thus increase% an% the elements of the soul are seen, not separately in scenes of humour or scenes of passion as our slower 3nglish min%s concei!e them, but streake%, in!ol!e%, ine-tricably confuse%, a new panorama of the human min% is re!eale%& he ol% %i!isions melt into each other& ,en are at the same time !illains an% saints# their acts are at once beautiful an% %espicable& We lo!e an% we hate at the same time& here is none of that precise %i!ision between goo% an% ba% to which we are use%& Often those for whom we feel most affection are the greatest criminals, an% the most ab=ect sinners mo!e us to the strongest a%miration as well as lo!e& Dashe% to the crest of the wa!es, bumpe% an% battere% on the stones at the bottom, it is %ifficult for an 3nglish rea%er to feel at ease& he process to which he is accustome% in his own literature is re!erse%& he Kussian Goint of Fiew in The ,ommon Reader

) he Kussian Goint of Fiew* !s the 3nglish Goint of Fiew

Hit is not the samo!ar but the teapot that rules in 3nglan%# time is limite%# space crow%e%# the influence of other points of !iew, of other books, e!en of other ages, makes itself felt& Society is sorte% out into lower, mi%%le, an% upper classes, each with its own tra%itions, its own manners, an%, to some e-tent, its own language& Whether he wishes it or not, there is a constant pressure upon an 3nglish no!elist to recognise these barriers, an%, in conse2uence, or%er is impose% on him an% some kin% of form# he is incline% to satire rather than to compassion, to scrutiny of society rather than un%erstan%ing of in%i!i%uals themsel!es& +o such restraints were lai% on Dostoe!sky& 't is all the same to him whether you are noble or simple, a tramp or a great la%y& Whoe!er you are, you are the !essel of this perple-e% li2ui%, this clou%y, yeasty, precious stuff, the soul& he soul is not restraine% by barriers& 't o!erflows, it floo%s, it mingles with the souls of others& he Kussian Goint of Fiew in The ,ommon Reader

Grimiti!ism inThe Wa)es

he win% rose& he wa!es %rumme% on the shore like turbane% warriors, like turbane% men with poisone% assegais who, whirling their arms on high, a%!ance upon the fee%ing flocks, the white sheep&

Boyce an% Grimiti!ism

Grimiti!e art ga!e mo%ernist artists the key to a syncretic union between image an% i%ea, form an% sub=ect& 9see Boyce*s use of fugue in the )Sirens* episo%e; A http1OOwww&youtube&comOwatch?!Mc4'S<$=Yl7w 95168 recor%ing of Sirens* from &lysses on You ube;

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