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MYTH, PRIMITIVISM AND MODERNISM

What are the roots?


What are the roots that clutch, what branches grow
Out of this stony rubbish? Son of man, You cannot say, or guess, for you know only A heap of broken images, where the sun beats

he ri!er"s tent is broken# the last fingers of leaf $lutch an% sink into the wet bank& he win% $rosses the brown lan%, unhear%& he nymphs are %eparte%& ' iresias, though blin%, throbbing between two li!es, Ol% man with wrinkle% female breasts, can see At the !iolet hour, the e!ening hour that stri!es (omewar%, an% brings the sailor home from sea, he typist home at teatime, clears her breakfast, light (er sto!e, an% lays out foo% in tins&

)I can connect nothing with nothing*


' can connect +othing with nothing& he broken fingernails of %irty han%s& ,y people humble people who e-pect +othing&" la la o $arthage then ' came .urning burning burning burning O /or% hou pluckest me out O /or% hou pluckest burning

)Shall I at least set

! lan"s in or"er?#

' sat upon the shore 0ishing, with the ari% plain behin% me Shall ' at least set my lan%s in or%er?

$TWO WAYS O% &EIN' IN THE


WOR(D#
)The sacre" s)ace* implies1 ac2uiring a )fi-e% point* orientation in the homogenous chaos )creation of the Worl%* an% real li!ing $The )ro*ane s)ace# implies lack of orientation an% no )fi-e% point*1 Actually, there is no )Worl%* any more, but only some fragments of a uni!erse shattere% to pieces, an amorphous mass ma%e up of an infinite number of more or less )neutral* )places* within which the person mo!es goa%e% by the responsibilities of an e-istence integrate% in an in%ustrial society& ,ircea 3lia%e, Sacrul si profanul, 4r% 3%ition, (umanitas, .ucuresti, 5667, p& 58, my translation

The sterilit! o* the in"i+i",al

o"ern

Accor%ing to 3lia%e, the archaic man use% to be essentially creati!e because any creation repeats the cosmogonic act par excellence1 the $reation of the Worl% 9The Myth of the Eternal Return, p& 5:; he sacred is the real par e-cellence& 9Sacrul si profanul, p& 7:; .y contrast, nothing in the sphere of the profane partakes of .eing, because the profane was not ontologically foun%e% on myth, an% it %oes not ha!e an e-emplary mo%el& 9Sacrul si profanul, p& 7:; he mo%ern in%i!i%ual fails to be acti!e in history, for this history either generates itself or it ten%s to be generate% by a number of people whose circle grows smaller an% smaller, making each in%i!i%ual incessantly li!e in terror of history& 9The Myth of the Eternal Return, p& 8<6;& herefore, the mo%ern in%i!i%ual is much less free an% creati!e than the archaic man&

E- M- %orster#s )air. $the Seen# an" $the /nseen#


'n Howards End $the seen# is a form of har% $non0realit!# clustere% aroun% the cit! an" the otor car1 ,argaret felt their whole =ourney from /on%on ha% been unreal& hey ha% no part with the earth an% its emotions& hey were %ust, an% a stink, an% cosmopolitan chatter, an% the girls whose cat ha% been kille% >by the car? ha% li!e% more %eeply than they&* $h& 5<, ,argaret*s trip by car to Oniton he characters who carry the philistine )!alues* of money, business, mo%ern property, car spee%, mo%ern progress are the Wilco1es he )panic an% emptiness*, )telegrams an% anger*, )noma%ic ci!ili@ation* of the )Satanic*city is counter pointe% by the $,nseen# transgressi!e an%rogynous spirit of the ho,se an" w!ch0el , grass an% )crop of hay* of (owar%s 3n%& he character who embo%ies this spirit1 is R,th Wilco1, who passes on her !alues to her )spiritual heir ,argaret Schlegel&

How

,ch o* the sacre" is there le*t *or the o"erns?

WillyAnilly, the profane in%i!i%ual still preser!es traces of the religious in%i!i%ual*s beha!iour, though they are emptie% of any religious significance& Whate!er he may %o, he inherits something an% cannot abolish his past, being its pro%uct& he man without religion is ma%e of a series of %enials an% refusals, but he continues to be obsesse% by the realities he %iscar%e%& 'n or%er to ha!e a worl% of his own, he %esacralise% the worl% of his ancestors, being thus force% to a%opt a beha!iour which runs contrary to the pre!ious one, but whose imminent outburst, un%er one form or another, he feels %eep within himself& 9Sacrul si profanul, p& 8<:;

THE MODERNS AND THE MYTH O% THE ETERNA( RET/RN


he mo%erns ha% a ten%ency to reintegrate historical time in a cosmic, cyclical an% infinite time&

3lia%e argues that the work of & S& 3liot an% of Bames Boyce is replete with the nostalgia of the myth of the eternal return an% e!entually the nostalgia of abolishing time& 9Myth of the Eternal Return, p& 8:C;

The Waste Land


An% upsi%e %own in air were towers olling reminiscent bells, that kept the hours An% !oices singing out of empty cisterns an% e-hauste% wells& 'n this %ecaye% hole among the mountains 'n the faint moonlight, the grass is singing O!er the tumble% gra!es, about the chapel here is the empty chapel, only the win%"s home& 't has no win%ows, an% the %oor swings, Dry bones can harm no one&

M!th re+isite"
& S& 3liot took the title, the plan an% much of the symbolism of The Waste and from Bessie /& Weston"s book on the Erail legen% !rom Ritual to Romance& (e was also in%ebte% to Bames Eeorge 0ra@er*s The "olden #ough, a book which influence% his generation profoun%ly& Bames Boyce re!isite% classic Ereek mythology in $ %ortrait an% &lysses an% $eltic mythology in !innegan's Wa(e D& (& /awrence*s The Rainbow an% Women in o)e are replete with mythical allusions an% references# 3nglan%, ,y 3nglan% is coloure% by nostalgia for a heathen AngloA Sa-on cultural past& F& Woolf*s theory of the an%rogynous min% was un%erpinne% by the myth of an%rogyny as spiritual perfection& W&.& Yeats %rew on ancient 'rish myths an% legen%s in or%er to create a mo%ern 'rish literature&

$lassic Ereek culture, a mythical past of 3nglan% an% a (in%u !ersion of the myth of the eternal return counterpoint the complacent .ritish mi%%le classes in 3& ,& 0orster*s $ %assage to *ndia&

The

!thologies o* North an" So,th

3& ,& 0orster*s he Story of a Ganic an% his )'talian no!els* Where $ngels !ear to Tread an% $ Room with a +iew Fision became more optical, less int,iti+e2loo3 at Englan"4 Hogarth, Re!nol"s, 'ains5oro,gh, the! are all alrea"! 5o,rgeois& he coat is really more important than the man& 't is ama@ing how important clothes su%%enly become, how they co!er the sub=ectH D& (& /awrence, 'ntro%uction to hese Gaintings II want to go so,th, where there is no autumn, where the col% %oesn"t crouch o!er one like a snow leopar% waiting to pounce& The heart o* the North is "ea", an" the *ingers o* col" are cor)se *ingers&I A D&(& /awrence, /etter to Bohn ,i%%leton ,urry 9October 8J5:;

Englishness 6 D- H- (awrence an" E- M- %orster


' cannot free myself from the con!iction that something irreplaceable has been %estroye%, an% that a little piece of 3nglan% has %ie% as surely as if a bomb ha% hit it& ' won%er what compensation there is in the worl% of the spirit, for the %estruction of the life here, a life of tra%ition& 3& ,& 0orster, Two ,heers for -emocracy

his is history& One 3nglan% blots out another& he miners ha% ma%e the halls wealthy& +ow they were blotting them out, as they ha% alrea%y blotte% out the cottages& he in%ustrial 3nglan% blots out the agricultural 3nglan%& One meaning blots out another& An% the continuity is not organic, but mechanical& D& (& /awrence, ady ,hatterley's o)er

Englishness 6 D- H- (awrence#s $S)irit o* Place# +s- $the Worl" o* &,siness7


he sunlight bla@e% %own upon the earth, there was a +i+i"ness o* *la ! +egetation, of *ierce secl,sion a i" the sa+age )eace o* the co ons& Strange how the sa+age Englan" lingers in )atches1 as here, ami% these shaggy gorse commons, an% marshy, snake infeste% places near the foot of the south %owns& The s)irit o* )lace lingering on )ri e+al, as when the Sa1ons ca e, so long ago& 93nglan%, ,y 3nglan%; 3gbert*s blue eyes ha% a to,ch o* the Vi3ing in the & Winifre%, too, see e" to co e o,t o* the ol" Englan"& 93nglan%, ,y 3nglan%;

(e lo!e% his wife, his cottage an% gar%en& (e woul% make his life there, as a sort of epicurean hermit& He lo+e" the )ast, the ol" ,sic an" "ances an" c,sto s o* ol" Englan"& He wo,l" tr! an" li+e in the s)irit o* these, not in the s)irit o* the worl" o* 5,siness& 93nglan%, ,y 3nglan%;

8His heart went 5ac3 to the sa+age ol" s)irit o* the )lace. the "esire *or ol" go"s, ol", lost )assions, the passion of the col%Abloo%e%,%arting snakes that hisse% an% shot away from him, the mystery of bloo%Asacrifices, all the lost, intense sensations of the prime!al people of the place, whose passions seethe% in the air still, *ro those long "a!s 5e*ore the Ro ans ca e& he seethe of a lost, %ark passion in theair& he presence of unseen snakes& 93nglan%, ,y 3nglan%;

A white "ragon is a national s! 5ol o* Englan" an" ,se" 5! an! as the tr,e *lag o* the Anglo Sa1on English- In this sense the "ragon is a g,ar"ian o* English lan", )eo)le an" heritageFarious accounts of the times recor% many battles between armies carrying the $eltic .ritish Ke% Dragon .anner 9now the Welsh Dragon; an% the White Dragon 0lag of the Sa-ons, Angles an% Butes 9the 3nglish Dragon;& he White Dragon was, an% still is, the emblem of Wesse-, the territory of the West Sa-ons an% the 3nglish Ling, Alfre% the Ereat&

Englishness 6 E- M- %orster#s Englan" 5etween Prose an" Passion


8Onl! connect4 That was the whole o* her ser on- Onl! connect the )rose an" the )assion, an" 5oth will 5e e1alte", an" h, an lo+e will 5e seen at its height- (i+e in *rag ents no longer- Onl! connect, an" the 5east an" the on3, ro55e" o* the isolation that is li*e to either, will "ie-7 Howards End, $h& 55 Here is the heart o* o,r islan"1 the $hilterns, the +orth Downs, the South Downs ra%iate hence& he fibres of 3nglan% unite in Wiltshire, an% %i% we con%escen% to worship her, here we shoul% erect our national shrine& The ongest .ourney, $h& 88

The North Downs


he North Downs are a ri%ge of chalk hills in south east 3nglan% that stretch from 0arnham in Surrey to the White $liffs of Do!er in Lent&

The So,th Downs


he So,th Downs is a range of chalk hills that e-ten%s for about 5C6 s2uare miles 9C76 km5; across the southAeastern coastal counties of 3nglan% from the 'tchen Falley of (ampshire in the west to .eachy (ea%, near 3astbourne, 3ast Susse-, in the east& 't is boun%e% on its northern si%e by a steep escarpment, from whose crest there are e-tensi!e !iews northwar%s across the Weal%&

$The 9entre o* the Worl"#


,ircea 3lia%e argues that the consecration of the centre of the worl% was the result of a 5reach into the ho ogeneit! o* the le+els achie!e% through a hiero)han!1 hus we fin% oursel!es confronte% with a chain of religious conceptions an% cosmological images which, linke% together, make up a system that may be calle% the tra%itional societies* )Worl" s!ste *1 a; a sacre% place is a breach into the homogeneity of space# b; this breach is represente% by an )opening* which allows passage from one cosmic region to another 9from the Sky to the 3arth an% the other way roun%1 from the 3arth to the un%erworl%; c; the communication with the Sky is achie!e% through a certain number of images which all gra!itate aroun% the $xis mundi1 pole 9see uni)ersalis columna;, stairway 9see Bacob*s la%%er;, mountain, tree, liana, etc& %; the )Worl%* 9M)our worl%*; is e!erywhere aroun% the cosmic a-is, therefore the a-is is )in the mi%%le*, in the omphalos, it is the $entre of the Worl%* Sacrul si profanul, pp/ 01203, my translation

&o"!, Ho,se, 9os os 6 E- M%orster#s Howards End


he religious in%i!i%ual cannot li!e but in an *open* worl% because he wishes to be at a )$entre*, where he is gi!en the chance to communicate with the go%s& (is %welling place is a microAcosmos, =ust as his bo%y is& he houseA bo%yA$osmos assimilation appears fairly early in time& o them (owar%s 3n% was a house1 they coul% not know that to her it ha% been a spirit, for which she sought a spiritual heir& Howards End, $h& 88 hen there*s a !ery big wychAelm N to the left as you look up N leaning a little o!er the house, an% stan%ing on the boun%ary between the gar%en an% the mea%ow& OHO H,rs Wilcotrailing in beautiful %resses %own long corri%orsH Howards End, $h& 8

Sacrul si profanul, pp& 85JA 846, my translation

(on"on 6 $a no a"ic ci+ili:ation#


't goes without saying that all these e-periences are inaccessible to the aA religious in%i!i%ual, not only because %eath has been %eAsacralise% for him but also because he no longer li!es in a $osmos as such an% thus no longer reali@es that ha!ing a )bo%y* an% %welling a house is the e2ui!alent of assuming an e-istential state in the $osmos&
Sacrul si profanul, p&848, my translation

Day an% night the ri!er flows into 3nglan%, %ay after %ay the sun retreats into the Welsh mountains, an% the tower chimes1 )See the $on2uering (ero&* .ut the Wilco-es ha!e no part in the place, nor in any place& 't is not their names that recur in the parish register& 't is not their ghosts that sigh among the al%ers at e!ening& hey ha!e swept into the !alley an% swept out of it, lea!ing a little %ust an% a little money behin%& Howards End, $h& 5J

Archet!)es in The Rainbow I


As they lay close together, complete an% beyon% the touch of time or change, it was as if they were at the !ery centre of all the slow wheeling of space an% the rapi% agitation of life, %eep, %eep insi%e them all, at the centre where there is utter ra%iance, an% eternal being, an% the silence absorbe% in praise1 the stea%y core of all mo!ements, the unawakene% sleep of all wakefulness& hey foun% themsel!es there, an% they lay still, in each other*s arms# for their moment they were at the heart of eternity, whilst time roare% far off, fore!er far off, towar%s the rim& hen gra%ually they were passe% away from the supreme centre, %own the circles of praise an% =oy an% gla%ness, further an% further out, towar%s the noise an% the friction& .ut their hearts ha% burne% an% were tempere% by the inner reality, they were unalterably gla%& Era%ually they began to wake up, the noises outsi%e became more real& hey un%erstoo% an% answere% the call outsi%e& hey counte% the strokes of the bell& An% when they counte% mi%%ay, they un%erstoo% that it was mi%%ay, in the worl%, an% for themsel!es also&

Archet!)es in The Rainbow II


8An% ' will establish my co!enant with you# neither shall all flesh be cut off any more by the waters of a floo%# neither shall there any more be a floo% to %estroy the earth& >;<? An% Eo% sai%, his is the token of the co!enant which ' make between me an% you an% e!ery li!ing creature that is with you, for perpetual generations1 >;=? ' %o set my bow in the clou%, an% it shall be for a token of a co!enant between me an% the earth& >;>? An% it shall come to pass, when ' bring a clou% o!er the earth, that the bow shall be seen in the clou%1 >;?? An% ' will remember my co!enant, which is between me an% you an% e!ery li!ing creature of all flesh# an% the waters shall no more become a floo% to %estroy all flesh& >;@? An% the bow shall be in the clou%# an% ' will look upon it, that ' may remember the e!erlasting co!enant between Eo% an% e!ery li!ing creature of all flesh that is upon the earth& >;A? An% Eo% sai% unto +oah, his is the token of the co!enant, which ' ha!e establishe% between me an% all flesh that is upon the earth& #oo( of "enesis, $hapter J, Ling Bames !ersion;

An% the rainbow stoo% on the earth& She knew that the sor%i% people who crept har%Ascale% an% separate on the face of the worl%*s corruption were li!ing still, that the rainbow was arche% in their bloo% an% woul% 2ui!er to life in their spirit, that they woul% cast off their horny co!ering of %isintegration, that new, clean, nake% bo%ies woul% issue to a new germination, to a new growth, rising to the light an% the win% an% the clean rain of hea!en& She saw in the rainbow the earth*s new architecture, the ol%, brittle corruption of houses an% factories swept away, the worl% built up in a li!ing fabric of truth, fitting to the o!erAarching hea!en& The Rainbow

D& (& /awrence*s Gtterdmmerung


Well, if mankin% is %estroye%, if our race is %estroye% like So%om, an% there is this beautiful e!ening with the luminous lan% an% trees, ' am satisfie%& hat which informs it all is there, an% can ne!er be lost& After all, what is mankin% but =ust one e-pression of the incomprehensible& An% if mankin% passes away, it will only mean that this particular e-pression is complete% an% %one& hat which is e-presse%, an% that which is to be e-presse%, cannot be %iminishe%& here it is, in the shining e!ening& /et mankin% pass away N time it %i%& he creati!e utterances will not cease, they will only be there& (umanity %oesn*t embo%y the utterance of the incomprehensible any more& (umanity is a %ea% letter& here will be a new embo%iment, in a new way& /et humanity %isappear as 2uick as possible& Kupert .irkin*s pri!ate thoughts in Women in o)e .irkin watche% the country, an% was fille% with a sort of hopelessness& (e always felt this, on approaching /on%on& (is %islike of mankin%, of the mass of mankin%, amounte% almost to an illness& Women in o)e

H-D M!steries Re ain he mysteries remain, ' keep the same cycle of see%Atime an% of sun an% rain# Demeter in the grass, ' multiply, renew an% bless .acchus in the !ine# ' hol% the law, ' keep the mysteries true, the first of these to name the li!ing, %ea%# ' am the wine an% brea%& * (eep the law, * hold the mysteries true, * am the )ine, the branches, you, and you/

The %,t,re o* 'o"s


+othing can be pre%icte%& .ut ' %on*t think that certain primor%ial re!elations coul% %isappear& 3!en in the most technologically %e!elope% society, there is something unalterable1 for there is %ay an% night, winter time an% summer time& 3!en in a treeless city there is the sky with its stars, an% man can see the stars an% the moon anyway& As long as there*s %ay an% night, winter an% summer, ' think man cannot be altere%& We are, against our will, integrate% in this cosmic rhythm& OHO he least religious person li!es by this rhythm OHO '*m sure other e-pressions will follow& What are those? ' coul%n*t say& he big surprise is always the free%om of spirit an% its creati!ity& ,ircea 3lia%e, 4rdeal by abyrinth, p& 864, my translation

Archet!)es. ',"r,n 0 Magna MaterB 'eral" 9rich 6 9ain, a Ni5el,ng, !o,ng Her es
Puickly he pulle% off his =acket, pulle% loose his black tie, an% was unfastening his stu%s, which were hea%e% each with a pearl& She listene%, watching, hoping no one woul% hear the starche% linen crackle& 't seeme% to snap like pistolAshots& (e ha% come for !in%ication& She let him hol% her in his arms, clasp her close against him& (e foun% in her an infinite relief& 'nto her he poure% all his pentAup %arkness an% corrosi!e %eath, an% he was whole again& 't was won%erful, mar!elous, it was a miracle& his was the e!erArecurrent miracle of his life, at the knowle%ge of which he was lost in an ecstasy of relief an% won%er& An% she, sub=ect, recei!e% him as a !essel fille% with his bitter potion of %eath& She ha% no power at this crisis to resist& he terrible frictional !iolence of %eath fille% her, an% she recei!e% it in an ecstasy of sub=ection, in throes of acute !iolent sensation& As he %rew nearer to her, he plunge% %eeper into her en!eloping soft warmth, a won%erful creati!e heat that penetrate% his !eins an% ga!e him life again& (e felt himself %issol!ing an% sinking to rest in the bath of her li!ing strength& 't seeme% as if her heart in her breast were a secon% uncon2uerable sun, into the glow an% creati!e strength of which he plunge% further an% further& All his !eins, that were mur%ere% an% lacerate%, heale% softly as life came pulsing in, stealing in!isibly in to him as if it were the allApowerful effluence of the sun& (is bloo%, which seeme% to ha!e been %rawn back into %eath, came ebbing on the return, surely, beautifully, powerfully& (e felt his limbs growing fuller an% fle-ible with life, his bo%y gaine% an unknown strength& (e was a man again, strong an% roun%e%& An% he was a chil%, so soothe% an% restore% an% full of gratitu%e& An% she, she was the great bath of life, he worshippe% her& ,other an% substance of all life she was& An% he, chil% an% man, recei!e% of her an% was ma%e whole& (is pure bo%y was almost kille%& .ut the miraculous, soft effluence of her breast suffuse% o!er him, o!er his seare%, %amage% brain, like a healing lymph, like a soft, soothing flow of life itself, perfect as if he were bathe% in the womb again& Women in o)e

Virginia Wool*#s An"rog!n!


The an"rog!no,s in" is ,nite", butQ heterogeneo,s an% creati+el! sel*0)er)et,ating& Woolf highlights this point by asking1 What "oes one ean 5! $the ,nit! o* the in"#? H for clearly the min% has so great a power of concentrating at any point at any moment that it seems to ha!e no single state of being& 't can separate itself from the people in the streetH Or it can think with other people spontaneously& 9$ Room of 4ne's 4wn; The an"rog!no,s rh!th in Woolf*s writing is most e!i%ent in sections of Mrs -alloway, To The ighthouse an% The Wa)es in which Woolf uses free in%irect %iscourse& +ancy opping .a@in actually %raws a %iagram of the )attern o* Mrs Dalloway which *or s the i age o* wa+es alternating 5etween "i**erent in"s an" "i**erent locationsElaine Showalter calls an"rog!n! a 8 !th that hel)e" her e+a"e con*rontation with her own )ain*,l *e aleness an" ena5le" her to cloa3 an" re)ress her anger an" a 5ition-7

The )erils o* an"rog!n!


/isa Ka%o uses the comparison between the characters Orlan%o an% Kho%a to illustrate how an"rog!n!, witho,t a strong sense o* the 5o"!, act,all! ca,ses insanit! an" "eath1 Kho%a N like Orlan%o N becomes so alienate% from her physical self that she can only be ma%e aware of it by slamming herself against a %oor N or a tree& .y suggesting that this selfAalienation is the source of Kho%a*s 9an% Orlan%o*s; ma%ness an% suici%e, Woolf e-poses their 8an"rog!n!7 as a 3in" o* *e ale castration, a *orce" lac3, a reC,isite s,5li ation that )reci)itates a terri*!ing +oi" o* se1less a5sence& /isa Ka%o, )Woul% the Keal Firginia Woolf Glease Stan% Rp? 0eminist $riticism, the An%rogyny Debates an% 4rlando*, Women's Studies 5C 9April 8JJ7;, http1OO infotrac&galegroup&com

Do!ce#s M!tho)oeic %iction 6 A Portrait


he Ereek myth of Dae"al,s in $ %ortrait Stephen is also a 9hrist an% a (,ci*eric figure 9see Da!i% /o%ge*s arguments in Boyce*s $hoices; Not onl! has Ste)hen reali:e" his na esa3e, 5,t he has create" his own !th- (is =ourney en%e% in the creation of an artist& Ste)hen has 5eco e a !th o* creation hi sel*- He ac3nowle"ges that he 5elongs to the race o* !thological *ig,res that ca e 5e*ore hi & he Ibir% girlI primarily represents three !thological *ig,res& She is1 E,ro)a ri%ing the bull# 3uropa was a beautiful mai%en that caught the eye of the king of the go%s& Pasi)hae an% her encounter with the bull, an% also the lo+e0go""ess A)hro"ite& he girl signifies the birth of ,inos, who was a spawn of Seus&

Do!ce#s M!tho)oeic %iction 0 lysses


/l!sses is *or e not onl! the )rotot!)e o* the o"ern an, 5,t also o* the an loo3ing *orwar" into the *,t,re, 5eca,se he is the t!)e o* the restless tra+eller & (is =ourney is a Eo,rne! towar"s the centre, towar%s 'thaca, in other wor"s towar"s hi sel*& (e is a goo% sailor, but fate N or rather the series of initiations which he must turn into !ictories N always forces him to %elay his return& ' think the myth of Rlysses is !ery important for us& There will alwa!s 5e a /l!sses in an! o* ,s# like him we look for our sel!es, hoping to fin% that, an% then, of course, returning to our country, our home, we fin% oursel!es again& ,ircea 3lia%e, 4rdeal by abyrinth, p& T<, my translation

The (a5!rinth
'n general, one li!es life in fragments& One %ay, in $hicago, passing by the 'nstitute of Oriental Stu%ies, ' felt the continuity of this time which begins with my a%olescence an% continues in 'n%ia, /on%on, an% the rest& 't is an encouraging e-perience1 you feel you ha!en*t waste% your time, you ha!en*t waste% your life& 3!erything connects, e!en the perio%s ' use% to consi%er unimportant, like, for instance, the military ser!ice, which sank into obli!ion, e!erything connects, an% all of a su%%en we see we*!e been le% by a purpose N an orientatio/5 ,ircea 3lia%e, 4rdeal by abyrinth, p& 8<T, my translation

&ac3 to the Roots


Disco!ering the profoun% unity that e-ists between the aboriginal 'n%ian culture, the culture in the .alkans an% the culture of the agricultural communities in Western 3urope ' felt at home& Stu%ying certain myths, certain techni2ues, ' saw they applie% in 3urope as well as they applie% in Asia& ' ne!er ha% the slightest sense of the e-otic& Seeing the folk tra%itions in 'n%ia, ' coul% trace the patterns of folk tra%itions in 3urope& ' think that helpe% me a lot to un%erstan% that .rUncuVi %i% not copy the creations of Komanian folk art& On the contrary, he went to the !ery source that inspire% the Komanian or Ereek peasants an% re%isco!ere% this e-traor%inary !ision of a person to whom the stone or the rock e-ist, we might say, in a hierophanic >i&e& manifestation of the sacre%? way& (e foun%, from within, the uni!erse of !alues create% by the archaic humans& 'n%ee%, 'n%ia helpe% me to un%erstan% the importance, the Komanian spirit an% at the same time the uni!ersal spirit of .rUncuVi*s creation& 'f you %o return to the sources, to the roots that go as far as the +eolithic, then you are !ery Komanian, or !ery 0rench, an% uni!ersal at the same time& ' ha!e always been fascinate% by this 2uestion1 how coul% we reco!er the fun%amental unity if not of the human e-ceptional spirit >3lia%e uses the wor% genius?, at least of a certain un%i!i%e% ci!ili@ation in 3urope*s past? .rUncuVi manage% to reco!er itH& So you seeH the cycle of my formation by 'n%ia en%s on the note of this %isco!ery an% this 2uestion& ,ircea 3lia%e, 4rdeal by abyrinth, p& <7, my translation

Grimiti!ism an% mo%ernism


A boom in the stu%y of anthropology ma%e the mo%ernists1 C,estion their own ci+ili:ation but also loo3 "own ,)on $)ri iti+is # as $low# art an" $5ar5aric# c,lt,re he first impact an% early history of primiti!ism is %escribe% by Eertru%e Stein in $utobiography of $lice #/ To(las6 $t the time 73819: negro sculpture had been well (nown to curio hunters but not to artists/ Who first recogni;ed its potential )alue for the modern artist * am sure * do not (now/ <=< *n any case it was Matisse who was influenced , not so much in his painting but in his sculpture, by the $frican statues, and it was Matisse who drew %icasso's attention to it >ust after %icasso had finished painting "ertrude Stein's portrait/5 2 watch An Art Gortfolio of Grimiti!ism 9appro-& T mins&; an% Eauguin1 ,aker of ,yth 9<1:C; on You ube Koger 0ry %isco!ere% $W@anne*s primiti!ist works in 8J6C, an% he argue%1 Why shoul% >the artist?Hwillfully return to the primiti!e, or as it is %erisi!ely calle%, barbaric art? he answer is that it isHsimply necessary, if art is to be rescue% from the hopeless encumbrance of its own accumulations of science# if art is to regain its power to e-press emotional i%eas&

Koger 0ry an% Grimiti!ism


0ry praise% primiti!e art for 2ualities .ritish art ha% lost o!er centuries1 )%irectness of !ision* an% )complete free%om* 'n his search for )!itality*, )sincerity* an% )spontaneity*, 0ry turne% to the 0rench 'mpressionists, an% 'slamic, .y@antine an% primiti!e art&

'n +o!& 8J86 0ry opene% the first GostA'mpressionist e-hibition, Eauguin*s ahitian paintings being the most pro!ocati!e part of the show& Gicasso an% ,atisse, the most aggressi!e an% inno!ati!e primiti!i@ers, %ominate% the secon% GostA'mpressionist e-hibition, in 8J85& his time, apart from the 0rench GostA'mpressionists, 0ry inclu%e% 88 3nglish GostA'mpressionists an% se!eral Kussian a!antAgar%e artists& Sergei Diaghile!*s company ha% alrea%y performe% in /on%on in 8J88, featuring %ances of the Golo!tsi, a noma%ic urkic people who inhabite% the central 3urasian steppe between the 88th an% 84th centuries&

Virginia Wool*#s res)onse to )ri iti+is an" the R,ssian cra:e


Woolf atten%e% se!eral performances of the .allets Kusses an% was welll aware of the fashions inspire% by Oriental motifs in Diagile!*s pro%uctions& She appeare% at a fancyA%ress party costume% as $leopatra& She was closely ac2uainte% with the Kussian ballerina /y%ia /opoko!a, who marrie% Bohn ,aynar% Leynes in 8J5<& Keferences to the Kussian .allet appear in se!eral of Woolf*s no!els1 The +oyage 4ut 98J8<;, The ?ears 98J47;, an% #etween the $cts 98J:8;& 3!elyn (aller argues that the soun% of the great beast stamping on the shore hear% by /ouis throughout The Wa)es resembles the collecti!e soun% of the stamping feet of the %ancers in 'gor Stra!insky*s ballets& (er Puill Drawn from the 0irebir%1 Firginia Woolf an% the Kussian Dancers

V- Wool* st,nne" 5! the R,ssian so,l


'n rea%ing cheko! we fin% oursel!es repeating the wor% soul again an% again& 't sprinkles his pages& Ol% %runkar%s use it freely# & & & you are high up in the ser!ice, beyon% all reach, but ha!en*t real soul, my %ear boy & & & there*s no strength in it& 'n%ee%, it is the soul that is the chief character in Kussian fiction& Delicate an% subtle in cheko!, sub=ect to an infinite number of humours an% %istempers, it is of greater %epth an% !olume in Dostoe!sky# it is liable to !iolent %iseases an% raging fe!ers, but still the pre%ominant concern& Gerhaps that is why it nee%s so great an effort on the part of an 3nglish rea%er to rea% he .rothers Larama@o! or he Gossesse% a secon% time& he soul is alien to him& 't is e!en antipathetic& 't has little sense of humour an% no sense of come%y& 't is formless& 't has slight connection with the intellect& 't is confuse%, %iffuse, tumultuous, incapable, it seems, of submitting to the control of logic or the %iscipline of poetry& he no!els of Dostoe!sky are seething whirlpools, gyrating san%storms, waterspouts which hiss an% boil an% suck us in& hey are compose% purely an% wholly of the stuff of the soul& Against our wills we are %rawn in, whirle% roun%, blin%e%, suffocate%, an% at the same time fille% with a gi%%y rapture& Out of Shakespeare there is no more e-citing rea%ing& We open the %oor an% fin% oursel!es in a room full of Kussian generals, the tutors of Kussian generals, their stepA%aughters an% cousins, an% crow%s of miscellaneous people who are all talking at the tops of their !oices about their most pri!ate affairs& he Kussian Goint of Fiew in The ,ommon Reader

Wool*#s )raise o* R,ssian e1)ression


't is the soul that matters, its passion, its tumult, its astonishing me%ley of beauty an% !ileness& An% if our !oices su%%enly rise into shrieks of laughter, or if we are shaken by the most !iolent sobbing, what more natural?X it har%ly calls for remark& he pace at which we are li!ing is so tremen%ous that sparks must rush off our wheels as we fly& ,oreo!er, when the spee% is thus increase% an% the elements of the soul are seen, not separately in scenes of humour or scenes of passion as our slower 3nglish min%s concei!e them, but streake%, in!ol!e%, ine-tricably confuse%, a new panorama of the human min% is re!eale%& he ol% %i!isions melt into each other& ,en are at the same time !illains an% saints# their acts are at once beautiful an% %espicable& We lo!e an% we hate at the same time& here is none of that precise %i!ision between goo% an% ba% to which we are use%& Often those for whom we feel most affection are the greatest criminals, an% the most ab=ect sinners mo!e us to the strongest a%miration as well as lo!e& Dashe% to the crest of the wa!es, bumpe% an% battere% on the stones at the bottom, it is %ifficult for an 3nglish rea%er to feel at ease& he process to which he is accustome% in his own literature is re!erse%& he Kussian Goint of Fiew in The ,ommon Reader

) he Kussian Goint of Fiew* !s the 3nglish Goint of Fiew


Hit is not the samo!ar but the teapot that rules in 3nglan%# time is limite%# space crow%e%# the influence of other points of !iew, of other books, e!en of other ages, makes itself felt& Society is sorte% out into lower, mi%%le, an% upper classes, each with its own tra%itions, its own manners, an%, to some e-tent, its own language& Whether he wishes it or not, there is a constant pressure upon an 3nglish no!elist to recognise these barriers, an%, in conse2uence, or%er is impose% on him an% some kin% of form# he is incline% to satire rather than to compassion, to scrutiny of society rather than un%erstan%ing of in%i!i%uals themsel!es& +o such restraints were lai% on Dostoe!sky& 't is all the same to him whether you are noble or simple, a tramp or a great la%y& Whoe!er you are, you are the !essel of this perple-e% li2ui%, this clou%y, yeasty, precious stuff, the soul& he soul is not restraine% by barriers& 't o!erflows, it floo%s, it mingles with the souls of others& he Kussian Goint of Fiew in The ,ommon Reader

Grimiti!ism inThe Wa)es


he win% rose& he wa!es %rumme% on the shore like turbane% warriors, like turbane% men with poisone% assegais who, whirling their arms on high, a%!ance upon the fee%ing flocks, the white sheep&

Boyce an% Grimiti!ism


Grimiti!e art ga!e mo%ernist artists the key to a syncretic union between image an% i%ea, form an% sub=ect& 9see Boyce*s use of fugue in the )Sirens* episo%e; A http1OOwww&youtube&comOwatch?!Mc4'S<$=Yl7w 95168 recor%ing of Sirens* from &lysses on You ube;

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