Counting

Sample Points
Definition of Terms
Sample Space
–is the set of all possible outcomes of a statistical
experiment and is represented by S
Statistical Experiment
–is any activity that produces outcomes
Examples:
tossing a coin
rolling a die
drawing a card from a deck of
52 cards
S = {head, tail}
S = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6}
S = {52 cards}
An experiment consists of flipping a coin and then
flipping it a second time if a head occurs. If a tail
occurs on the first flip, then a die is tossed once. List
the elements of the sample space.
Tree Diagram
first
outcome
second
outcome
sample
point
H
T
H
T
1
2
3
4
5
6
HH
HT
T1
T2
T3
T4
T5
T6
Definition of Terms
Event
–is a subset of a sample space
Sample Points
–are member/element of the sample space
Examples:
an event of getting even faces in
rolling a die
an event of getting a number less
than 4 in rolling a die
A = {2, 4, 6}
A = {3, 6}
A = {1, 2, 3}
an event of getting a number
divisible by 3 in rolling a die
Complement of an Event
–the complement of an event A with respect to S is the
subset of all elements of S that are not in A and denoted
by A’
Example:
S = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6}
A = {2, 4, 6}
A’ = {1, 3, 5}
Intersection of Events
–the intersection of two events A and B, denoted by
A∩B, is the event containing all elements that are
common to A and B
Example:
A = {2, 4, 6}
B = {2, 3, 5}
A∩B = {2}
Mutually Exclusive or Disjoint Events
–two events A and B are mutually exclusive or disjoint if
A∩B = Ø, that is, if A and B have no elements in
common
Example:
A = {Mars, Mercury, Venus}
B = {Jupiter, Uranus, Saturn}
since A∩B = Ø, we can say that A and B are
disjoint sets or mutually exclusive
Union of Events
–the union of two events A and B, denoted by AUB, is
the event containing all the elements that belong to A or
B or both
Example:
A = {1, 2, 3}
B = {2, 4, 6}
AUB = {1, 2, 3, 4, 6}
Factorial Notation
The factorial of a positive integer n,
denoted by n! (read as “n factorial”) is
the product of all integers from 1 to
n. In symbols,
n! = 1 ∙ 2 ∙ 3 ∙ … (n – 1) ∙ n
or
n! = n ∙ (n – 1) ∙ (n – 2) … 3 ∙ 2 ∙ 1
Note: zero factorial is equal to one (0! = 1)
Multiplication Rule
If an operation can be performed in n
1

ways and if for each of these a second
operation can be performed in n
2
ways,
then the two operations can be
performed in n
1
∙n
2
ways.
Examples:
1. How many sample points are in the sample space
when a pair of dice is thrown once?
2. If an experiment consists of throwing a die and
then drawing a letter at random from the English
alphabet, how many points are in the sample space?
Generalized Multiplication Rule
If an operation can be performed in n
1

ways and if for each of these a second
operation can be performed in n
2
ways,
and for each of the first two a third
operation can be performed in n
3
ways,
and so forth, then the sequence of k
operations can be performed in
n
1


n
2
, …,∙ n
k
ways.
Generalized Multiplication Rule
Examples:
1. How many lunches are possible consisting of soup,
a sandwich, dessert and a drink if we can select
from 4 soups, 3 kinds of sandwiches, 5 desserts and
4 drinks?
2. How many three-digit even numbers can be
formed from the digits 1, 2, 5, 6 and 9 if each digit
can be used only once?
3. How many numbers of 3 different digits less than
300 can be formed from the integers 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5?
4. How many sets of answers are possible for a yes
or no quiz of ten questions?
Permutation
An arrangement of n distinct objects in
a specific order is called a permutation
of the objects.
P1: The number of permutations of n distinct
objects is n!.
Examples:
1. Suppose a photographer must arrange three people
(Sue, Mary, Bill) in a row for a photograph. How many
possible ways can the arrangement be done?
2. How many different ways can 7 floral arrangements
be arranged in a row in a single display shelf?
Permutation
P2: The arrangement of n objects in a
specific order using r objects at a time is
called a permutation of n objects taken r
objects at a time.
)! (
!
r n
n
P
r n
÷
=
Permutation
Examples:
1. Suppose a business owner has a choice of five
locations in which to establish her business. She
wishes to rank only the top three locations. How
many different ways can she rank them?
2. Two lottery tickets are drawn from 20 for a first
and second prize. Find the number of sample points
in the space S.
3. How many different signals can be made by 5
flags from 8 flags of different colors?
Permutation
P3: The number of permutations of n distinct
objects arranged in a circle is (n – 1)!.
Examples:
1. In how many different orders can 8 people sit in
a circle?
2. Six children join hands. In how many ways can
they form a circle?
Permutation
P4: The number of permutations of n objects
in which k
1
are alike, k
2,
are alike etc., is
! ... ! !
!
2 1 n
k k k
n
· · ·
Permutation
Examples:
1. How many different permutations can be made
from the letters in the word MISSISSIPPI?
2. How many different ways can 3 red, 4 yellow and
2 blue bulbs be arranged in a string of Christmas
tree lights with 9 sockets?
3. In how many ways can 3 oaks, 4 pines and 2
maples be arranged along a property line if one does
not distinguish between trees of the same kind?
Permutation
P5: The number of ways of partitioning a set
of n objects into r cells with n
1
elements in
the first cell, n
2
elements in the second, and
so forth, is
! ... ! !
!
,... ,
2 1 2 1 r r
n n n
n
n n n
n
· · ·
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
where n
1
+ n
2
+ … + n
r
= n.
Examples:
1. In how many ways can 7 scientists be assigned to
one triple and two double hotel rooms?
Combination
A selection of distinct objects without
regard to order is called a combination.
C1: The number of combinations of r objects
selected from n objects is
)! ( !
!
r n r
n
r
n
C
r n
÷
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
Combination
Examples:
1. In order to survey opinions of customers at local
malls, a researcher decides to select 5 malls from a
total of 12 malls in a specific geographic area. How
many different ways can the selection be made?
2. Suppose a designer wishes to select two colors of
material to design a new dress, and she has on hand
four colors (yellow, pink, purple, orange). How many
different possibilities can there be in this
situation?
3. How many different menus can be formed
composing of 3 viands if there are 7 viands available?
Combination
Examples:
4. From 4 chemists and 3 physicists find the
number of committee that can be formed consisting
of 2 chemists and 1 physicist.
5. How many line segments are determined by 8
distinct points?
6. In how many ways can one select from 4
mathematics books and 3 chemistry books from a
set of 9 mathematics books and 7 chemistry books,
all different?