Adult Learning Principles

Learning Retention
= 20% = 10% = 30%

© ACS

+

= 50%

+ Do
Say = 70%

= 90%

© ACS

Adult Learning Principles
Definitions
Andragogy- the art and science of helping adults learn. Pedagogy- the art and science of helping children learn. Adult Learner- a person more than 18 years old who seeks new skills or information and who exhibits selfdirection and autonomy. Self-direction- the opportunity for a person to determine the ways in which she will learn. Autonomy- achieving the state of self-directed learning and independence.

The Learner Continuum

Adult Learner-Centered

ChildLearner: Teacher-CenteredTeaching:

?Who are your learners Demographic/genera

tion Learning styles Learning preferences Personality types

How can you be an effective ?teacher
When planning for instruction, did you consider:  Motivation  Reinforcement  Retention  Transference

(Lieb, 1991)

Four Aspects of Learning
1. Motivation

Why do learners want to learn? What are the barriers? Is the level of difficulty appropriate? 2. Reinforcement 1. Feedback – positive and negative

Four Aspects of Learning
1. Retention
1. Encourage practice and

application 2. Explain relevance and purpose of information
2. Transference
1. Positive and Negative (both are

good!) 2. Association and similarity improve transference

Characteristics of Adult Learners

Characteristics of Adult Learners
Learning Characteristics 1. Adults continuously grow and learn. 2. Adult learning is often selfinitiated and aimed at an immediate goal. 3. Adults learn and process materials in a variety of ways. 4. People have preferences in subject matter or skills. 5. Adults use only part of their

Characteristics of Adult Learners
Experiential Characteristics
No adult is the same as any other adult because each has a unique past and a unique perception of that past. An adult’s self-concept is the product of past experiences. Through experiences and past decisions, adults narrow the possibilities open to them in the future.

Learners
Physical Characteristics
3.The adult body enters a catabolic (breaking

down) process.
5.Adults have habits.

Characteristics of Adult Learners
Role and Relationship Characteristics
3. Adults belong to many groups and play many roles

during a single day and during a lifetime.

5. The motivational needs of adults change in

different roles with different developmental tasks. These needs affect relationships.

7. Adults have relationship preferences that influence

their sense of self and affect decisions and actions.

change
Learning is functionally defined as

a change in behavior. Change in knowledge is the most common result of adult learning. Acquiring new information and knowledge is part of everyday adult life. Some adults seek out learning opportunities.

Adults must want to .2 learn
Adults choose to become in

learning activities. Some programs require participation. Learning efficiency and achievement is correlated with personal motivation. Identify factors in adult learning. Develop a “felt need” for participants.

:Notes
Adults are free to choose to become in

learning activities. Some programs require participation.
Potential for learning diminishes

Learning efficiency and achievement is

directly correlated with personal motivation.
Lack of internal motivation Inservice programs, update training

workshops

Be prepared to identify factors in adult

learning

3. Adults learn by doing
Adults learn best through

direct participation. Plan programs that begin at the “entry level.” Significant barriers to learning:
Low self-esteem Unconfident in own abilities Fear of ridicule or failure

Organize activities that

:Notes
Adults learn best through direct participation

in the learning process. Adult educators must plan programs that begin at the “entry level” then increase opportunities for adults to become engaged in learning. Significant barriers to learning:
Low self-esteem Unconfident in own abilities Fear of ridicule or failure

Organize activities that ensure success.

4. Focus on realistic problems
Knowledge and skills with

immediate application. Adults do not have time or patience to learn irrelevant information. Use the inductive approach to learning.
Use realistic situations Identify and define problem Propose alternative solutions Develop conclusions

Focus on knowledge and skills that have

immediate application. Most adults do not have time, patience, or inclination to learn irrelevant information.
Eliminate: “What does this have to do with me?”

Use the inductive approach to learning.
Educators use realistic situations  Case studies, role play, demonstrations, etc. Identify and define problem Propose alternative solutions Conclusions involve a general principle or concept

5. Experience affects learning
•Experience influences (+ or -) adult learning.
•Experience is a cumulative characteristic •Varies widely among adult groups •Participants’ sets of previous experiences •May be broad or lacking in scope •Adding new knowledge or skill is “life dependent”

•Recognize + and - affects. •Unlearning and relearning is necessary in today’s society.

Experience influences (+ or -) adult learning.
Experience is a cumulative characteristic Varies widely among adult groups Participants’ sets of previous experiences Foundation may be broad and firm or lacking

in scope Adding new knowledge or skill is “life dependent”

Educators must recognize + and -

affects.

Positive experiences enhance quality of

learning

Knowledge, Skills, and Experience Base
of experience, knowledge, or skills for

Your job may require you to fill in the blocks

6. Informal learning environments
•Rules inhibit adult learners. •Full immersion in the educational process. •Most adults accept behavioral guidelines. •Refreshment breaks are a necessity.

•Scheduled breaks enhance the learning process •Allows for interaction among all participants •Promotes informal and relaxed discussion

:Notes
Rigid adherence to rules inhibits adult

learners. Empower adults to become fully immersed in the educational process. Most adults accept behavioral guidelines.
Acceptance depends on involvement Adults should establish own operating rules  Promotes self-directed learning  Enables focus on positive aspects of learning

Refreshment breaks are a necessity.
Scheduled breaks enhance the learning process Allows for interaction among all participants Promotes informal and relaxed discussion

7. Variety in teaching methods
•Adults learn through their senses. •Multiple senses promote retention rates. •Trade-off between efficiency and effectiveness. •Recognize this trade-off when planning programs.
•Purpose of the program •Objectives of the program

:Notes
Adults learn through their senses.
Inclusion of all senses increases learning

effectiveness for adults Incorporate activities that require sensory stimulation

Multiple use of senses promotes

retention rates. Trade-off between instructional efficiency and instructional effectiveness in adult education.
Maximize effectiveness: long-term retention Maximize efficiency: transmission of

information

Educators must recognize this trade-off

8. Guidance, not grades
•Adults are individualistic in evaluating their achievements or performance. •Avoid application of rigid performance standards except when required by certification. •Adults benefit from encouragement of their capabilities as learners.

:Notes
Adults are individualistic in evaluating

their achievements or performance.

Do not enjoy being used as an example to

others Fear humiliation or ridicule Desire external affirmation of progress - peer group

Avoid application of rigid, external
Offer suggestions for improvement in

performance standards except when required by certification.
performance

Use tactful non-threatening manner  Incorporate self-evaluations among adult learners

Adults benefit from encouragement of

Adult Learning Theory
Adults…
bring knowledge, skills, attitudes bring experience like to solve problems like to apply what they learn to real situations like to have choices like to share in the setting learning objectives have variety of learning styles/preferences do best in an environment where they feel safe,

accepted, and respected want and need feedback need to have their abilities and achievements honored

Adult Learning Principles
1. Adults are motivated to learn as they develop needs and interests generated by real life tasks or problems. 2. Adult orientation to learning is life- or workcentered. 3. Experience is the richest resource for adult learning. 4. Adults have a deep need to be self-directing. 5. Individual differences among adult learners increase with age and experience.

YOU
A caring person is the best hope

of people who have few resources and face overwhelming circumstances.
A caring person offers

possibilities provides resources, and sustains hope.

Caring for Adult Learners
You care for learners when you
are warm, supportive, and

encouraging

take the learner’s concerns,

anxieties, and aspirations seriously

?What is a Good Teacher
A good teacher is someone who:
Creates Connections May Not Know Everything We Remember

Teachers Connect
Teachers create connections

between themselves and the

learners
between learners and the

material

It’s NotHow Much You Know The most important elements in teaching are

not
content expertise and technical skill.

Instructor preparation is essential to success!

The Teachers We …Remember Most
The teachers we remember most are

those who invested themselves in their teaching, who enjoyed what they were doing, and who communicated that excitement about the learning to us.

are the Teachers Who Cared

THANK YOU