Speeches of English Grammar (1) | Grammatical Number | Pronoun

What is Grammar?

A set of rules and principles to speak and write a language in a correct manner. The word Grammar derives from Greek word (Grammatike) which means “Art of letters” Grammar Is also called the backbone of the language.

Why to use Grammar
To make the conversation positive and impressive.

How to use Grammar
By making correct use of tenses and speeches of English.

8 types of speeches
Nouns Verbs Pronouns Adverbs Adjectives Prepositions Interjections Conjunctions

Noun
word that names a

A Person A Place A Thing An Idea

Kinds of nouns
• • • • • Common Noun Proper Noun Singular Noun Plural Noun Irregular Noun

Common noun
Names general items like Kitchen Wallpaer Mouse etc.

Proper noun
Name a specific (one-of-a-kind or unique) thing Oxford Jupiter Eiffel Tower
Will always begin with a capital letter

Singular/plural noun

Singular noun names a only one thing where as plural noun names more than thing. E.g House - houses Chair - Chairs

Conversion of singular to plural
When the singular noun ends in: -sh, -ch, -s, -ss, -x, -o Form the plural by adding “-es".

Sandwich - sandwiches brush - brushes bus - buses box - boxes potato - potatoes

singular noun ends in "y", we change
“y” for “ies”

Butterfly - Butterflies do not change the "y" for "ies" when the singular noun ends in "y" preceded by a vowel. day - days toy - toys

Irregular Nouns
which do not form the plural in this way Woman - Women Child - Children Sheep - Sheep

Child - children Man - men Ox - oxen Deer - deer Series - series Sheep - sheep Species - species Mouse - mice Person - people Cactus - Cacti

Verb
word that expresses some action or occurrence Paul rides a bicycle John types an essay

Types of verbs
• Action verbs • Linking verbs

Action verbs express some physical or mental action Paul rides a bicycle

Linking verbs make a statement by linking the subject with word that describes or explains it. I am riding a bicycle

Being, Been, Am, Is, Are, Was, Were, Shall be, Will be

The Pronoun
A Word which replaces noun or nouns and designates person, place or a thing. John is student He is student
Rule: A pronoun must agree with the noun it refer to (singular/plural)

The train was late, it had been delayed. The trains were late, they had been delayed.

Types of Pronouns
• Personal Pronoun (I, me, mine) • Demonstrative Pronoun (This, That , These, Those) • Interrogative pronoun (Who, which, what)

Personal Pronoun
Personal pronoun refers to person who is doing the action or to whom the action affects e.g. I, me, He, Him, She, Her, We, Us, They, Them.

Demonstrative pronoun
Which points to a specific thing This, That, These, Those They also indicate whether the thing is close or far "That" (singular) and "Those" (plural) refer to an object or person far AWAY. Who owns that house? (distant - physical) Is this John's house? (near - physical)

Interrogative pronoun
Used in order to ask a question
What, Which, Who, Whose, Whom

Who wrote the novel Rockbound?

The Adjective
Modifies or describes a noun or pronoun / adjective shows the property of a noun Which, What kind, How many
The lazy dog sat on the rug, the word lazy is an adjective which gives more information about the noun dog.

Which contains an adjective?
old man, on Tuesday, she said, and you, afternoon old man Bill Clinton, the fire spread, got married, very busy, piece of pie very busy

Which does not contain an adjective?
cold water, until now, rainy day, great idea, gold star until now wait here, my friend, is hot, lucky day, that guy wait here
 

How many adjectives are in the sentence?
The old dog was tired and dirty?
0 1 2 3 4 3

I ate a piece of cake with my coffee?
0 1 2 3 4 1

The Adverb
Modifies and describes a verb, an adjective or any other adverb How -Tom sings well. When - I can't meet you today. Where - They will be here soon. How much - He usually gets good grades.

Which contains an adverb?
rich man, study hard, one time, easy job, hard life study hard   How many adverbs are in I really woke up too early this morning? 0 1 2 3 4  3 really, too, early

Adjective and Adverb
An Adjectives shows the relation with a Noun
A Slow Car

An Adverb shows the relation with a verb
He drives slowly

Adjectives and Adverbs
Slow – Slowly Angry – Angrily Easy – Easily Quiet – Quietly Careful – Carefully

Exercise
1. He ___ reads a book. (quick) Quickly (Adverb) 2. Mandy is a ___ girl. (pretty) Pretty (Adjective) 3. The class is ___ loud today. (terrible) Terribly (Adverb) 4. Max is a ___ singer. (good) Good (Adjective) 5. You can ___ open this tin. (easy) Easily (Adverb)

Exercise
6. It's a ___ day today. (terrible) Terrible (Adjective) 7. She sings the song ___. (good) Good (Adverb) 8. He is a ___ driver. (careful) Careful (Adjective) 9. He ____ drives the car . (careful) Carefully (Adverb) 10. The dog barks ___ . (loud) Loudly (Adverb)

Choose the correct word (adjective or adverb)
• • • • • • • • • • This music is too loud. We can’t talk. She played badly and she lost the game. We waited patiently for the letter but it never came. Please don’t be angry with him. She asks intelligent questions. The children are playing together very nicely today. She’s a very warm person and everyone likes her. She surprised me when she opened the door suddenly. You speak English very well. It’s dangerous to swim in the sea here.

The Preposition
All those words which show the relationship between a the sentence. noun/pronoun and another word in

The proposition never stands alone. The preposition can be one word or group of words.

Some common prepositions
At, By, On, To, For, Of, Through, Up, Off, Onto, Up to, In, Within, Across, Into, Along, Behind , Below
1. I'm tired __ waiting for you. 2. He hasn't smoked ___ ages. 3. Nina is good __ running. 4. I'm looking ___ my keys. Has anyone found them? 5. They dream __ moving to South Africa. 6. This song was written __ Madonna 7. You can look the word __ in a dictionary. 8. I can't come to the party. Don't wait ___ me. 9. She had problems __ reading the instructions. 10. The police car chased the robbers _______ the streets.

Which is not correct?
in February, on 5:00 o'clock, at my house, on May 2 at California, under the rug, at noon , on Friday in a minute, in October, in the table, in 1949, in my ear

The Conjunction
A word that joins words or group of words
And - They ate and drank. Or - He will be here on Monday or Tuesday Neither/nor Neither - John knew the answer nor Tom. Either/Or - Either Neil or peter can give speech But - She is small but strong. So - I was tired so I went to sleep (After, Before, Unless, Although, if, Until, as, Since, When, Because, Then)

Which conjunction fits best in the sentence:
1. I am hungry ___ I don't want to eat. but , so, after, before , or 2. Do you want pizza ___ a hamburger? Than, so, while, as, or  3. He ate ___ he was hungry. If, so, or, although, because

How many conjunctions are in the sentence:
After Ben and Sid come, we can leave. 0 1 2 3 4  2

1. People cause accidents when they drink and drive. 2. You should know that smoking is bad for your health. 3. Linda’s father always watches TV when he comes home. 4. Do you know when he started playing chess? 5. Tim knew that he will work in his holidays. 6. I can’t understand why she hasn’t phoned yet. 7. They were very proud because they won. 8. He broke his arm when he fell down the tree. 9. She wanted to open the door but she couldn’t find the key. 10. He didn’t know what time they left the party.

The Interjection
words which express the emotions WOW Goodness OOPS Damn
(Ouch, Oh no, Hey, Shh, Yeah, well)

Thank You…

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