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What are they doing? Why do organisms need food? What happen to the food we eat when it enters into the body? In what form does the food enter the cell?


Involve 4 different processes, i.e :

INGESTION DIGESTION : taking food into the body : breaking the food into small molecule ABSORPTION : absorb the digested food into the blood EGESTION : removal of indigestible materials (faeces) from the body These processes all take place in the digestive system (the alimentary canal=digestive tract)

Parts of Digestive System

Digestive Tracts Consist of:
Oral Cavity (Mouth)
Tongue Teeth


Oesophagus (Gullet) Gaster (Stomach)

Cardia Fundus pilorus

Small intestine(intestinum tennue)

Duodenum Yeyenum Ileum

Large intestine (colon/intestinum crassum)

Ascenden Transcenden Descenden

Rectum Anus

Digestive Glands
Salivary glands
Parotic glands Sublingual gland Submandibulary gland

Gall bladder (kandung empedu)



Involve mechanical and chemical digestion Inside mouth :
The process include mechanical and chemical digestion The food quite large lumps Teeth and tongue break down the food into smaller pieces (mechanical process) Saliva moisten the food so it is easily swallowed and contain amylase to begin break down of starch (chemical process)


Dental decay :
Although enamel is the hardest material in any mammals body, it is vulnerable to attack by acids Acids naturally present in fruits and other foods Bacteria living in the spaces between teeth also make acids Bacteria grow in the crevices forming plaque Plaque makes it even easier for bacteria to grow and produce acids

Keeping of dental health :

Brushing teeth regularly using alkaline toothpaste By added to drinking water with flouride (note : very high doses of flouride are toxic and excess flouride intake has been linked to a variety of health problems).

Inside Oesophagus :
Each lump of swallowed food, called a bolus, is moved along oesophagus by waves of muscle contraction called peristalsis

Inside Gaster (stomach)

Mechanical and chemical Food enters through a ring of muscle known as a sphincter Gastrin (hormone) is secreted and stimulates the wall of gaster to secrete liquid contain :
HCl Pepsinogen (gastric protease) Rennin Lipase gastric

Inside small intestine

Chemical digestion Bile salts in gall bladder produced by liver emulsifies fats Colecystocinin (hormone) stimulates gall bladder to release bile salt Bile salts act to neutralize the acid mixture from the stomach Bile contain no enzyme The bile is passed along the bile duct into the duodenum

Pancreas is stimulated by secretin (hormone) secretes pancreatic juices contain several enzymes i.e :
Lipase Amylase Tripsinogen (activated by entrokinase tripsin) And NaHCO3 to neutralise the chyme from gaster

Wall of the small intestine secretes intestinal juices contain several enzymes i.e :
Maltase Sucrase Erepsin Enterocynase Lactase

Digestion process finish in Jejenum The final result of the process :

Glucose Fructose Galacktose Amino acids Fatty acids and gliserol

Absorption happens in the main parts of small intestine known as the ileum To help the process, the lining of the ileum is covered in milllion of villi

Vitamins and minerals do not need to digest because they are already in the form ready to absorb by small intestine wall The ileum is adapted for efficient absorption of food by having a large surface area :
It is long (6-7 meters in an adult) The inside is covered with villi The villi are covered in microvilli The villi themselves have features :
Thin and permeable walls Good blood supply Contain lymph vessels (lacteals) which absorb some of the fatty acids

Inside Large intestine

Water is absorbed from the remaining material The remaining material (faeces), made up of indigestible food, dead cells from the lining of the alimentary canal and bacteria is compacted and stored inside the rectum Faeces is egested through a sphincter inside anus

Review Questions
What is the difference between egestion and excretion? Where do ingestion and egestion happen? Mention several kind of proteases which are produced in inactive form. The villi are adapted to absorb food and the alveoli in the lungs are adapted to absorb oxygen. In what ways are they similar? Mention kind of diseases which have a relation with digestive system