AC Meters

Chapter 03

Objectives
 At the end of this chapter, the

students should be able to:

Describe the operation of half-wave rectifier circuit.  Trace the current path in a full-wave bridge rectifier circuit.  calculate ac sensitivity and the value of multiplier resistors for half-wave and full-wave rectification.

Outlines • Introduction: What is AC. • D’Arsonval with Half-wave Rectification. • D’Arsonval with Full-wave Rectification.

Outlines • Electrodynamometer movement. • Loading Effects of AC Voltmeters • Summary

Introduction
• Several types of meter movements maybe used to measure AC current or voltage. • The five principle meter movements used in ac instruments are listed in Table below:

Introduction
No 1 2 3 4 5 Meter Movement Electrodynamometer Iron-Vane Electro-static Thermocouple D’Arsonval DC Use YES YES YES YES YES AC Use YES YES YES YES Applications Standard meter, Wattmeter, etc… Indicator applications, etc… High voltage measurement. Radio freq measurement

YES-w/ Voltage, currents, rectifiers resistance, etc…

d’Arsonval MM with ½ Wave Rectification.
• In order to measure ac with d’Arsonval MM, we must first rectify the ac current by use of a diode rectifier. • This process will produce unidirectional current flow. • Several types of diode rectifiers are available: copper oxide, vacuum diode, semiconductor diode etc.

d’Arsonval MM with ½ Wave Rectification.
• Still remember our DC Voltmeter, using d’Arsonval meter movement? Im
+
Rs

Sensitivity= 1/Ifs

Rm Im

Figure 1: The d’Arsonval meter movement used in a DC voltmeter

d’Arsonval MM with ½ Wave Rectification.
• PMMC meter movements will not work correctly if directly connected to alternating current, because the direction of needle movement will change with each half-cycle of the AC. • Permanent-magnet meter movements, like permanent-magnet motors, are devices whose motion depends on the polarity of the applied voltage.

d’Arsonval MM with ½ Wave Rectification.

d’Arsonval MM with ½ Wave Rectification.
• If we add a diode to a DC Voltmeter, then we have a meter circuit capable of measuring ac R voltage.
S

+

Rm I m

_

d’Arsonval MM with ½ Wave Rectification.
• The FW biased diode will have no effects in the operations of the circuit. (ideal diode) • Now, suppose we replace the 10Vdc with 10Vrms, what will happen?

d’Arsonval MM with ½ Wave Rectification.
• The voltage across the MM is just the positive ½ cycle of the sine wave because of rectifying action of the diode. • The peak value of the ac sine wave is :

Ep= Erms X 1.414.

d’Arsonval MM with ½ Wave Rectification.
• The MM will respond to the average value of sine wave where the average, or DC value equal to 0.318 times the peak value. • The ave value of the AC sine wave is :

Eave= Ep/π =0.45x Erms

d’Arsonval MM with ½ Wave Rectification.
• The diode action produces an approximately half sine wave across the load resistor. • The average value of this voltage is referred to as the DC voltage, which a DC voltmeter connected across a load resistor will respond to.

d’Arsonval MM with ½ Wave Rectification.
• Therefore, we can see that the pointer that deflected full scale when a 10-V DC signal was applied, deflects to only 4.5V when we apply a 10-Vrms sine AC waveforms. • Thus, an AC Voltmeter using ½ wave rectification is only approximately 45% sensitive as a DC Voltmeter.

d’Arsonval MM with ½ Wave Rectification.
• In order to have a full scale deflection meter when a 10-Vrms is applied, we have to design the meter with the Rs having 45% of Rs of DC Voltmeter. • Since the equivalent DC voltage is 45% of RMS value, we can write like this: Rs= (Edc/Idc)-Rm = (0.45Erms/Idc) -Rm

d’Arsonval MM with ½ Wave Rectification.
Example 1
Compute the value of Rs for a 10-Vrms AC range on the voltmeter shown in Figure 1. Given that Ein= 10-Vrms, Ifs= 1mA, Rm=300Ω.
RS

+

Rm I m

_

d’Arsonval MM with ½ Wave Rectification.
Example 2 In the ½ wave rectifier shown below, D1 and D2 have an average forward resistance of 50Ω and are assumed to have an infinite resistance in reverse biased. Calculate the following: (a) Rs value (b) Sac (c) Sdc Given that Ein = 10-Vrms, Rsh = 200Ω, Ifs = 100mA, Rm = 200Ω
Rs IT D1 Ish Ein D2 Rsh
Rm

Im

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