275 views

Uploaded by leon619

save

- Electromagnetic Field Theory [eBook]
- Quantum Field Theory
- Two Extended New Approaches to Vacuum, Matter & Fields
- electromagnetic filed theory
- Quantum Field Theory - R. Clarkson, D. McKeon
- Matti Pitkanen- Quantum Hardware of Living Matter
- conformal field theory
- qft
- field theory Vector Algebra
- Unified Theory Met a Philosophy - 2008 - Csaba Varga
- Neutrosophic Physics, by Florentin Smarandache
- field theory Electrostatics II
- Physics - Introduction to String Field Theory
- Force Field Theory
- Introduction to Path Integrals in Field Theory
- Geometric Algebra and Its Application to Mathematical Physics
- quantum Fields theory - W. Siegel
- Fields-PHYSICS
- Advanced Quantum Field Theory
- Complex Geometry and General Relativity
- 24163043 the Sea of Energy in Which the Earth Floats Edition5
- WhiteheadsTheoryofGravity_Bain
- Quantum Field Theory
- Alex Kaivarainen- Bivacuum, as a Matrix for Matter, Fields & Time Origination: Virtual Pressure Waves, Virtual Replicas and Overunity Devices
- S. A. Huggett and K. P. Tod- An Introduction to Twistor Theory
- Aquino - Gravitational-Electromagnetic Field Theory (1992)
- TransDimensionalUnifiedFieldTheory8.09
- Geometry and Group Theory - Pope
- Total Field Theory
- Parallel Transport
- Field Theory Tut2 Ans
- Field Theory Tut1 Ans
- field theory Vector Algebra
- Field Theory Tut4 Ans
- ce14.1
- Field Theory Tut3 Ans
- 1.Systems and Simulations (VERY Important)
- Using Quick Field for Field Theory
- Instrumentation Lecture 3
- Tutorial 1
- field theory MAGNETOSTATICS
- Instrumentation Lecture 2B
- field theory Electrostatics II
- Chapter 8 Problems Key
- 1,2 Relativity Explained
- Gc Yields
- lec14
- 201008.034.ProNet.ProNet
- bgcinvestigtion
- Chapter 10 Radioactivity Teacher Guide1
- Catalyst Catalogue
- 06Names and Formulas
- 12 Chemistry Usp 09 Solid State
- ResoFAST Sample Paper Class X
- The Main Code
- Dynamic Characteristics of Solids Transportation in Rotary Dryers
- corrosion rate vs grain size.pdf
- Electrical Engineering
- air flow-1.pdf
- Fm Mechanical Journal
- ACS PracticeTest 2
- Compensation Point Evaluation
- Thermo 5th Chap05 P001
- 9050 Preparation of Culture Media
- Chapter 2 Exercise
- Chapter 1
- Levelling
- Development of a Large-Scale Process for an HIV Protease Inhibitor.pdf
- RSES Acids and Their Treatment
- Reactions
- Fluid Mechanics – Multiple Choice Questions and Answers (MCQ) - Scholarexpress
- Yearly Lesson Plan Physics Form 5 2015 Smktpi
- Seven Theories

You are on page 1of 61

UKZN, Durban

ENEL2FT FIELD THEORY

• REFERENCES

• 1. M.N. Sadiku: Elements of Electromagnetics, Oxford

University Press, 1995, ISBN 0-19-510368-8.

• 2. N.N. Rao: Elements of Engineering Electromagnetics,

Prectice-Hall, 1991, ISBN:0-13-251604-7.

• 3. P. Lorrain, D. Corson: Electromagnetic Fields and Waves,

W.H. Freeman & Co, 1970, ISBN: 0-7167-0330-0.

• 4. David T. Thomas: Engineering Electromagnetics,

Pergamon Press, ISBN: 08-016778-0.

ELECTROSTATIC FIELDS

• COULOMB’S LAW

• The study of electrostatics begins by investigating two

fundamental laws: Coulomb’s law and Gauss’s law.

• Although Coulomb’s law is applicable in finding the electric

field due to any charge configuration, it is easier to use

Gauss’s law when charge distribution is symmetrical.

• Coulomb’s law is an experimental law formulated in 1785 by

the French colonel, Charles Coulomb.

• It deals with the force a point charge exerts on another point

charge.

• By a point charge is meant a charge that is located on a body

whose dimensions are much smaller than other relevant

dimensions.

• For example, the collection of electric charges on a pinhead

may be regarded as a point charge.

• Charges are generally measured in Coulombs (C).

• One Coulomb is approximately equal to 6x1018 electrons; it is a

very

ENEL2FT Fieldlarge

Theory unit of charge because the charge

Electrostatic of an electron is

Fields 3

ELECTROSTATIC FIELDS

• COULOMB’S LAW

• Coulomb’s law states that the force F between two point

charges Q1 and Q2 is:

– a) Along the line joining the charges

– b) Directly proportional to the product Q1Q2 of the charges

– c) Inversely proportional to the square of the distance R

between them.

• Mathematically, Coulomb’s law

kQ Q is expressed as:

F= 1 2

2

R

• In SI units, charges Q1 and Q2 are in coulombs (C), the

distance R is in metres, and the force F is in newtons (N).

• A constant εo is defined as the permittivity of free space (in

farads/metre).

ENEL2FT Field Theory Electrostatic Fields 4

ELECTROSTATIC FIELDS

• COULOMB’S LAW

• The constant k is defined as:

1

k= m/ F

4πε o

10−9

εo = ≈ 8.854 x10−12 F / m

36π

• Then the equation of force becomes:

Q1Q2

F=

4πε o R 2

position vectors r1 and r2, respectively, then the force F12 on

Q2 due to Q1 is given by:

F12 = 1 2

aˆ12

4πε o R 2

ELECTROSTATIC FIELDS

• COULOMB’S LAW

F21

Q1

R12

Q2

F12

origin

• Where:

R12 = r2 − r1; R = R12

R12

aˆ12 =

R12

ELECTROSTATIC FIELDS

• COULOMB’S LAW

• We may re-write Coulomb’s equation as:

Q1Q2 Q1Q2 ( r2 − r1 )

F12 = R =

3 12 3

4πε o R 4πε o r2 − r1

F21 = − F12

each other, while unlike charges attract.

• The distance R between the two charged bodies Q1 and Q2

must be large compared with the linear dimensions of the

bodies.

• Q1 and Q2 must be static (at rest).

• The signs of Q1 and Q2 must be taken into account.

ENEL2FT Field Theory Electrostatic Fields 7

ELECTROSTATIC FIELDS

• COULOMB’S LAW

• If there are more than two point charges, we can use the

principle of superposition to determine the force on a

particular charge.

• The principle states that if there are N charges Q1, Q2, ..,QN

located respectively at points with position vectors r1,r2,..,r,

the resultant force F on a charge Q located at point r is the

vector sum of the forces exerted on Q by each of the

charges Q1, Q2, ..,Q

N.Hence:

QQ1 ( r − r1 ) QQ2 ( r − r2 ) QQN ( r − rN )

F= 3 + 3 + .. + 3

4πε r − r1 4πε r − r2 4πε r − rN

Q N Qk ( r − rk )

F= ∑

4πε o k =1 r − rk 3

ELECTROSTATIC FIELDS

• We define the electric field intensity or electric field strength as

the force per unit charge when placed in the electric field.

• That is:

1

E= F

Q

force F and is measured in Volts/metre.

• The electric field intensity at point r due to a point charge

located at r1 is obtained as:

Q Q( r − r1 )

E= R= 3

4πε o R 3

4πε o r − r1

ELECTROSTATIC FIELDS

• For N point charges Q1,Q2,..,QN located at positions r1,r2,..,rN,

the electric field intensity at point r is obtained as:

Q1 ( r − r1 )

Q2 ( r − r2 ) QN ( r − rN )

E= 3 + 3 + .. + 3

4πε r − r1 4πε r − r2 4πε r − rN

1 N Qk ( r − rk )

E= ∑

4πε o k =1 r − rk 3

• Example:

• Point charges of 2mC and 4mC are located at (3,2,1) and

(-1,-2,-3), respectively. Calculate the electric force on a 10

nC charge located at (0,2,4). Also calculate the electric field

intensity at that point.

ELECTROSTATIC FIELDS

• ELECTRIC FIELDS DUE TO CONTINUOUS CHARGE DISTRIBUTIONS

• So far, we have only considered forces and electric fields due to

point charges, which are essentially charges occupying very

small physical space.

• At a macroscopic scale, we can disregard the discrete nature of

the charge distribution and treat the net charge contained in an

elemental volume ∆v as if it were uniformly distributed within it.

• Accordingly, we define the volume charge density as:

∆q dq

ρ v = lim = (C / m3 )

∆v →0 ∆v dv

spatial location is called its spatial distribution. The total charge

contained in volume v is given by:

Q = ∫ ρ v dv Coulombs

v

ELECTROSTATIC FIELDS

• In some cases, particularly when dealing with conductors,

electric charge may be distributed across the surface of a

material, in which case the relevant quantity of interest is the

surface charge density, ρs, defined as:

∆q dq

ρ s = lim =

∆s →0 ∆s ds

area ∆s. Similarly, if the charge is distributed along a line, we

characterize the distribution in terms of the line charge density

ρl, defined as: ∆q dq

ρl = lim = ( C / m)

∆l →0 ∆l dl

ELECTROSTATIC FIELDS

• ELECTRIC FIELDS DUE TO CONTINUOUS CHARGE DISTRIBUTIONS

• The electric field intensity due to each of the charge

distributions ρl,ρs,and ρv may be regarded as the summation of

the field distributed by the numerous point charges making up

the charge distribution.

• Thus we replace Q in the equations for E, and integrating, we

get:

ρ dl

E = ∫ l 2 rˆ

4πε o R

ρ ds

E = ∫ s 2 rˆ

4πε o R

ρ dv

E = ∫ v 2 rˆ

4πε o R

• We shall now apply these formulas to specific charge

distributions.

ELECTROSTATIC FIELDS

• ELECTRIC FIELDS DUE TO CONTINUOUS CHARGE

DISTRIBUTIONS – AN INFINITE LINE CHARGE

extending from -∞ to +∞ along the z-axis, as shown below.

dz

r̂

α

R − ẑ

z âR

α r̂

Infinite r

line charge dE

ELECTROSTATIC FIELDS

• The charge element dQ associated with element dz of the

line is:

dQ = ρ L dz

line, due to the elemental charge ρ Ldz is given by:

ρ L dz ρ L dz

dE = aˆ =

2 R 3

R

4πε o R 4πε o R

R

⇒ aˆ R = ; R = R

R

• R = r 2 + z 2 ; we

From geometry, r tan α ⇒ R = r 2 + r 2 tan 2 α = r secα

z = obtain:

dz d d sin α

=r tan α = r = r sec 2

α ⇒ dz = r sec 2

αdα

dα dα dα cosα

ELECTROSTATIC FIELDS

• ELECTRIC FIELDS DUE TO AN INFINITE LINE CHARGE

• Also, for the unit vector we have:

aˆ R = rˆ cosα − zˆ sin α

ρ L ( rˆ cosα − zˆ sin α ) r sec 2 αdα ρL

∴ dE = = [ ( rˆ cosα − zˆ sin α ) dα ]

4πε o r sec α

2 2

4πε o r

• If we now integrate over the entire line, then α varies from –

π/2 to +π/2 as z varies from -∞ to +∞; thus:

E=

ρL π / 2

4πε o r −π / 2 4πε o r

{

(∫ rˆ cosα − zˆ sin α ) dα = ρ L [ rˆ sin α ]π−π/ 2/ 2 + [ zˆ cosα ]π−π/ 2/ 2 }

ρL

∴E = rˆ

2πε o r

• In normal cylindrical coordinates, the expression becomes:

ρL

E= ρˆ

2πε o ρ

ELECTROSTATIC FIELDS

• Alternatively, one can see from the expression for dE that:

dE = = [ ( rˆ cosα − zˆ sin α ) dα ] = rˆdEr + zˆdEz

4πε o r sec α

2 2

4πε o r

• One observes that at the observation point P, the

contribution to Ez due to the element dz at point +z on the

line charge is cancelled by the contribution due to the

element dz at position –z along the line charge. Therefore,

we could just conclude that:

E z = 0; ⇒ E = rˆEr + zˆE z = rˆEr

ELECTROSTATIC FIELDS

z ẑ âR

dE α

αR

h − ρ̂

Circular ring y

of charge ϕ

ρ

dl

• x

Consider a circular ring of charge of radius ρ, having

uniform charge density ρl C/m. The ring is placed on the x-y

plane.

ELECTROSTATIC FIELDS

• We are required to determine the total electric field at the

point P along the z-axis, located a height h above the x-y

plane.

• Consider an elemental length dl on the ring. The electric

field arising from this elemental charge is given by:

dQ

dE = 2 aˆ R

4πε o R

dQ = ρ L dl = ρ L ( ρdϕ )

R = ρ 2 + h 2 ; aˆ R = − ρˆ sin α + zˆ cosα

ρ L ( ρdϕ )

∴ dE = ( − ρˆ sin α + zˆ cosα )

(

4πε o ρ + h

2 2

)

⇒ dE = ρˆdE ρ + zˆdE z

ELECTROSTATIC FIELDS

• Thus dE has both a z-component and a ρ−component.

• However, from symmetry considerations, for every element

dl in the direction ρ giving rise to an elemental field strength

dEρ , there is a corresponding opposite element –dl giving

rise to an opposite elemental electric field strength –dEρ .

Therefore the ρ components of dE cancel; this implies that

dE has only a z-component. Thus:

ρ L ( ρdϕ )

ρdE ρ = 0, ⇒ dE = zˆdE z =

ˆ ( zˆ cosα )

(

4πε o ρ 2 + h 2 )

2π ρ L ( zˆ cosα )( ρdϕ ) ρ L ( zˆρ cosα )

E= ∫ =

0 (

4πε o ρ + h

2 2

) (

2ε o ρ 2 + h 2 )

• Simplifying, we obtain:

ρ L ( zˆρ cosα ) zˆρhρ L zˆ ( 2πρρ L ) h zˆQh

E= = = =

( ) (

2ε o ρ 2 + h 2 2ε o ρ 2 + h 2 ) 3/ 2

(

4πε o ρ + h 2

)

2 3/ 2

(

4πε o ρ + h

2

)

2 3/ 2

ELECTROSTATIC FIELDS

• ELECTRIC FIELDS DUE TO AN INFINITE SURFACE CHARGE

• Let us consider an infinite plane sheet of charge in the xy-

plane with uniform surface charge density ρs C/m2. We are

required to find the electric field intensity due to it

everywhere above thesheet.

dE z

α R âR ẑ

h α

y − ρ̂

ϕ

ρ dϕ dρ

x

dA

ELECTROSTATIC FIELDS

• ELECTRIC FIELDS DUE TO AN INFINITE SURFACE CHARGE

• Consider the point P(0,0,h) on the z-axis. The sheet of

surface charge is thus placed a distance h below P. The

charge contribution due to an elemental area dA is given

by:

dQ = ρ s dA; dA = ( ρdϕ ) dρ ⇒ dQ = ρ s ( ρdϕ ) dρ

• We also derive

the following relationships from the sketch:

R = R = h 2 + ρ 2 ; ρ = h tan α ; ⇒ R = h 1 + tan 2 α = h secα

dρ d sin α

=h = h sec 2

α ; ⇒ d ρ = h sec 2

αdα

dα dα cosα

aˆ R = zˆ cosα − ρˆ sin α

• Then the electric field intensity arising from this elemental

charge is:

dQaˆ R ρ s ( ρdϕdρ ) ρ s (h tan αdϕ )(h sec 2 αdα )[ zˆ cosα − ρˆ sin α ]

dE = = aˆ R =

4πε o R 2

4πε o R 2

4πε o h 2 sec 2 α

ELECTROSTATIC FIELDS

• ELECTRIC FIELDS DUE TO AN INFINITE SURFACE CHARGE

ρ

dE = s { [ zˆ tan α cosα − ρˆ tan α sin α ] dαdϕ }

4πε o

ρ s sin 2 α

∴ dE = z

ˆ sin α − ρ

ˆ d αd ϕ = zˆdE z + ρˆdE ρ

4πε o cosα

• The total electric field is obtained from the integration of dE

over the entire surface. Here, ϕ varies from (0,2π), while α

varied from (0,π/2).

• Note that dE has two components: one, dEz in the z-

direction, and the other is dEρ in the ρ direction.

• For the ρ component of dE, for each value of dEρ, there is a

canceling value, -dEρ, from the opposite element. Thus the ρ

components cancel each other out, and we have left only

the z-component:

ρ s 2π π / 2 ρ s π / 2 ρs

E= ∫ ∫ ( zˆ sin α ) dα dϕ = ∫ ( zˆ sin α ) dα = zˆ = zˆE z

4πε o 0 0 2ε o 0 2ε o

ELECTROSTATIC FIELDS

• For a point located below the charge sheet, the electric field

intensity is:

ρ

E = − zˆ s

2ε o

• If we consider two infinite parallel, oppositely-charged charge

sheets, one with charge density ρs, and the other with

opposite charge density –ρs C/m2, the total electric field

between the two plates is given by:

ρ ( − ρs )

E = zˆ s + − zˆ

2ε o 2ε o

ρ

∴ E = zˆ s

εo

• This would therefore be the total electric field between two

plates of a parallel-plate capacitor with (approximately)

infinite dimensions.

ELECTROSTATIC FIELDS

• ELECTRIC FLUX DENSITY

• Let us define a vector field, D, as:

D = εE

is independent of the medium. Define the electric flux, Ψ,

as:

Ψ = ∫ D.dS

the vector D is called the electric flux density, measured in

C/m2.

• Thus all formulas derived for E from Coulomb’s law can be

used in calculating D, except we have to multiply those

results by ε o. Thus for a volume charge distribution,

ρ dv

D = ∫ v 2 aˆ R

4πR

ELECTROSTATIC FIELDS

• GAUSS’S LAW

• Gauss’s law states that the total electric flux, Ψ, flowing out

of a closed surface S equals to the total charge enclosed by

the surface.

• That is:

Ψ = Qenc ⇒ Ψ = ∫S D.dS = Qenc

Q = ∫ ρ v dv ⇒ ∫ D.dS = ∫ ρ v dv

v s v

law.

• Gauss’s law provides an easy means of finding E or D for

symmetrical charge distributions such as a point Charge,

an infinite line charge, an infinite surface charge, and a

spherical charge distribution.

ENEL2FT Field Theory Electrostatic Fields 26

ELECTROSTATIC FIELDS

• Suppose that a point charge Q is located at the origin.

• To determine the flux density D at a point P, it is seen that

choosing a spherical surface containing P will satisfy

symmetry conditions.

• Thus a spherical surface centered at the origin is the

Gaussian surface in thiszcase, as shown below.

P

D

r

Q y

Gaussian Surface

x

ELECTROSTATIC FIELDS

• Applying Gauss’s law, with a spherical surface as the

Gaussian surface, we have:

Q = ∫ D.dS = ∫ Dr rˆ.dS

V V

dS = rˆ( rdθ )( r sin θdϕ )

π 2π

∴ Q = Dr ∫ ∫ r 2 dϕ sin θdθ = Dr 4πr 2

0 0

Q

∴ D = rˆ

4πr 2

Q

D = ε o E ⇒ E = rˆ

4ε oπr 2

ELECTROSTATIC FIELDS

• Suppose the infinite line of uniform charge ρ L C/m lies

along the z-axis.

• To determine D at a point P a distance ρ from the line, we

choose a cylindrical surface containing P to satisfy

symmetry conditions as shown in the figure below.

z

Line charge

ρ L C/m

Gaussian

surface

ρ P

L

D

y

x

ENEL2FT Field Theory Electrostatic Fields 29

ELECTROSTATIC FIELDS

• D is constant on and normal to the cylindrical Gaussian

surface. Thus,

D = ρˆDρ

length L of the line,

Qenc = ρ L L = ∫ D.dS

we have:

dS = ρˆ ( ρdϕdz )

∴ Qenc = ρ L L = Dρ 2 ρπL

ρ ρL

∴ D = ρˆ L ⇒ Eρˆ

2 ρπ 2ε o ρπ

surfaces of the cylinder is zero since D has no z-

component.

ENEL2FT Field Theory Electrostatic Fields 30

ELECTROSTATIC FIELDS

CHARGED SPHERE

Gaussian surface

r a

a

r≤a r

r≥a

• Consider a sphere of radius a with a uniform charge ρv

C/m3.

ELECTROSTATIC FIELDS

• APPLICATION OF GAUSS’S LAW TO A UNIFORMLY

CHARGED SPHERE

• To determine D everywhere, we construct Gaussian

surfaces for cases r≤a, and r≥a, separately.

• Since the charge has spherical symmetry, it is obvious that

a spherical surface is an appropriate Gaussian surface.

• For r≤a, the total charge enclosed by the spherical surface

of radius r is:

2π π r

2

Qenc = ∫ ρ v dv = ∫ ∫ ∫ r sin θdrdθdϕ

ϕ = 0θ = 0 r = 0

4πr 3

Qenc = ρv

3

( )

2π π

Ψ = ∫ D.dS = Dr ∫ ∫ r 2 sin θdθdϕ = Dr 4πr 2

ϕ =0 θ = 0

ELECTROSTATIC FIELDS

CHARGED SPHERE

• Thus we have:

4πr 3

Ψ = Qenc ⇒ 4πr Dr = 2

ρv

3

r

∴ D = rˆ , 0 ≤ r ≤ a

3

the entire charge in this case, that is:

2π π a 4πa 3

Qenc = ∫ ρ v dv = ρ v ∫ ∫ ∫ r sin θdrdθdϕ =

2

ρv

ϕ =0 θ =0 r =0 3

• Similarly, the flux is given by:

(

Ψ = ∫ D.dS = 4πr 2 Dr )

ELECTROSTATIC FIELDS

CHARGED SPHERE

• Hence we obtain,

(

4πr Dr =

2

)

4πa 3

3

ρv

a3 ρv

⇒ D = rˆ 2 , r ≥ a

3r

rρ v

rˆ , r≤a

3

D= 3

rˆ a ρ v , r ≥ a

3r 2

ELECTROSTATIC FIELDS

OF CHARGE

• Consider the infinite sheet of uniform charge with charge

density ρs C/m2 lying on the z-0 plane (xy-plane).

z

Infinite sheet of D

charge, ρ s C/m2

Area A

x Gaussian surface

D

ENEL2FT Field Theory Electrostatic Fields 35

ELECTROSTATIC FIELDS

• APPLICATION OF GAUSS’S LAW TO A AN INFINITE SHEET

OF CHARGE

• To determine D at point P, we choose a rectangular box

that is cut symmetrically by the sheet of charge and has

two of its sides parallel to the sheet as shown in the figure.

• As D is normal to the sheet, we have, when applying

Gauss’s law: D = zˆDz

∫ D.dS = Q = Dz ∫ dS + ∫ dS

top bottom

• If the top and bottom

Q = ρ s Aof

=Ψthe

=Dpillbox

( A + A) each

= 2 ADhas area A, then

z z

we get:

ρs D ρ

∴ D = zˆ ⇒ E = = zˆ s

2 εo 2ε o

ELECTROSTATIC FIELDS

• ELECTRIC POTENTIAL

• In electric circuits, we work with voltages and currents.

• The voltage V between two points in the circuit

represents the amount of work, or potential energy, required

to move a unit charge between the two points.

• In fact, the term “voltage” is a shortened version of the

term “voltage potential” and is the same as electric

potential.

• Even though when we solve a circuit problem we usually

do not consider the electric fields present in the circuit,

in fact it is the existence of an electric field between two

points that gives rise to the voltage difference between

them, such as across a resistor or capacitor.

• The relationship between the electric field, E, and the

electric potential, V, is the subject of this section.

ELECTROSTATIC FIELDS

• ELECTRIC POTENTIAL

y

dy

q

E E

x

electric field

E = − yˆ E

• The presence of the field E exerts a force F on the charge,

given by:

ENEL2FT Field Theory Electrostatic Fields 38

ELECTROSTATIC FIELDS

• ELECTRIC POTENTIAL

Fe = qE = − yˆ qE

• The force exerted is in the negative y-direction.

• If we attempt to move the charge along the positive y-

direction, against the force Fe, we will need to provide an

external force Fext to counteract Fe, which requires an

expenditure of energy.

• To move q without any acceleration (at a constant speed), it

is necessary that the net force acting on the charge be

zero. This means that:

Fext = − Fe = − qE

vector differential distance dl under the influence of force

Fext is:

dW = F .dl = − qE.dl

ext

ELECTROSTATIC FIELDS

• ELECTRIC POTENTIAL

• If the charge is moved a distance dy along y, then:

dW = −q( − yˆ E ) . yˆdy = qEdy

is called the differential electric potential, or differential

voltage, dV.

• That is, dW

dV = = − E.dl ( J / C or V )

q

• The unit of V is the volt (V), and therefore the electric field

is expressed in volts per metre (V/m).

ELECTROSTATIC FIELDS

• ELECTRIC POTENTIAL

• Thus the potential difference between any two points P2

and P1 is obtained by integrating dV along the path between

P1 and P2. That is: V = ∫ dV

P2 P2

V21 = V2 − V1 = ∫ dV = ∫ E.dl

P1 P1

P2, respectively.

• The result of the line integral above should be independent

of the specific path of integration between points P1 and P2.

• It is also readily seen that Pthe2 integral

P2 of the electrostatic field E

V22 = Vcontour

around any closed 2 − V2 = ∫ is = ∫ E.dl = ∫ E.dl = 0

dV zero:

P2 P2 C

But ∫ E.dl = ∫ ∇xE.dS ⇒∇xE = 0

C S

ELECTROSTATIC FIELDS

• ELECTRIC POTENTIAL

• We now define what is meant by the electric potential V at a

point in space.

• Whenever we talk of a voltage V in a circuit, we do so in

reference to a voltage of some conveniently chosen point

to which we have assigned a reference voltage of zero, which

we call ground.

• The same principle applies to electric potential V. Usually,

the reference potential point is chosen to be at infinity. That

is, if we assume V1=0 when P1 is at infinity, the electric

potential at any point P is given

P

by:

V = − ∫ E.dl

∞

ELECTROSTATIC FIELDS

• ELECTRIC POTENTIAL DUE TO POINT CHARGES

• For a charge q located at the origin of a spherical

coordinate system, the electric field at a distance R is given

by: q

E = aˆ R (V / m)

4πε o R 2

between two points in determining the potential V is quite

arbitrary. Hence we conveniently choose the path to be

along the radial direction R, in which case we have:

R R q q

V = − ∫ E.dl = − ∫ aˆ R

2

.( ˆ

a R dR ) = (V )

∞ ∞ 4πε o R 4πε o R

• If the charge q is at a location other than the origin,

specified by a source position vector R1, then the potential

V at observation position vector R becomes:

q

V= (V )

4πε o R − R1

ELECTROSTATIC FIELDS

• The principle of superposition that has been applied

previously to the electric field E also applies to the

electric potential V.

• For N discrete point charges q1, q2, ..,qN having

position vectors R1, R2, ..,N RN, the electric potential is:

1 q

V= ∑ i (V )

4πε o i =1 R − Ri

ELECTROSTATIC FIELDS

CHARGE DISTRIBUTIONS

• For a continuous charge distribution specified over a given

volume V, across a surface S, or along a line l, we replace

the qi with: ρ dv; ρ ds; ρ dl

v s l

1 ρv

obtain: V ( R) = ∫ dv (volume distribution)

4πε o V R

1 ρs

V ( R) = ∫ dS ( surface distribution)

4πε o S R

1 ρl

V ( R) = ∫ dl (line distribution)

4πε o L R

ELECTROSTATIC FIELDS

POTENTIAL

• We have seen that:

dV = − E.dl

have:E = xˆE x + yˆ E y + zˆE z ; dl = xˆdx + yˆ dy + zˆdz

∴ E.dl = ( xˆE x + yˆ E y + zˆE z ).( xˆdx + yˆ dy + zˆdz ) = E x dx + E y dy + E z dz

∂V ∂V ∂V

dV = dx + dy + dz

∂x ∂y ∂z

∂V ∂V ∂V

∴ Ex = − ; Ey = − ; Ez = − ;

∂x ∂y ∂z

• Thus E = −∇V

ELECTROSTATIC FIELDS

• EXAMPLE:

• Given the potential function:

10

V= 2

sin θ cos φ

r

• Determine:

• A) The electric field strength and the electric flux

density at (2,π/2, 0)

• The work done in moving a 10-µC charge from

point A (1,30o, 120o) to B(4,90o,60o)

ELECTROSTATIC FIELDS

• SOLUTION:

∂V 1 ∂V ˆ 1 ∂V ˆ

E = −∇V = − rˆ + θ+ φ

∂r r ∂θ r sin θ ∂φ

20 10 10

= 3 sin θ cos φrˆ − 3 cosθ cos φθˆ + 3 sin φφˆ

r r r

20 20

E = rˆ − 0θˆ + 0φˆ = rˆ V / m = 2.5rˆ V / m

( 2,π / 2, 0 ) 8 8

10 −9 20 −11

D = εoE = rˆ = 2.21x10 C / m2

36π 8

B

W = QV AB = −Q ∫ E.dl = Q(VB − V A )

A

10 10

= Q 2 sin θ cos φ − 2 sin θ cos φ

r ( 4,90 o ,60 o ) r (1,30 o ,120 o )

( )10 10

= 10 x10 − 6 sin 90 o cos 60 o − sin 30 o cos120 o = 10 −5 (

)10 −

− 10

4

16 1 32

∴W = 2.8125x10 - 5 J

ELECTROSTATIC FIELDS

• THE ELECTRIC DIPOLE

• An electric dipole is formed when two point charges of

equal but opposite sign are separated by a small distance,

as shown below.

z

r1

θ

r2

+Q

r

d y

-Q

An Eectric Dipole

x

ELECTROSTATIC FIELDS

• THE ELECTRIC DIPOLE

• The potential at point P(r,θ,φ) is given by:

Q 1 1 Q r2 − r1

V= r − r = 4πε r r

4πε o 1 2 o 1 2

• Where r1 and r2 are the distances between P and +Q and –Q,

respectively.

• If r>>d,

2 then:

2 d

2

r =r +

1 − 2r (d / 2) cosθ ≈ r 2 − 2r (d / 2) cosθ

2

∴ r1 = r 2 − 2r (d / 2) cosθ = r 1 − (d / r ) cosθ ≈ r − (d / 2) cosθ

2

d

r22 = r + + 2r (d / 2) cosθ ≈ r 2 + 2r (d / 2) cosθ

2

2

∴ r2 = r 2 + 2r (d / 2) cosθ = r 1 + (d / r ) cosθ ≈ r + (d / 2) cosθ

∴ r2 − r1 ≈ d cosθ

( )(

r1r2 = r 1 − (d / r ) cosθ r 1 + (d / r ) cosθ = r 2 ) (( (1 − (d / r ) cosθ ) ( 1 + (d / r ) cosθ ) ))

= r 2 1 − [ (d / r ) cosθ ] 2 ≈ r 2

Q r2 − r1 Qd cosθ

∴V = rr =

4πε o 1 2 4πε o r

2

ELECTROSTATIC FIELDS

• THE ELECTRIC DIPOLE

• Define the dipole moment p as:

p = Qd

Qd cosθ p.rˆ

V= 2

=

4πε o r 4πε o r 2

origin, is:

∂V 1 ∂V ˆ

E = −∇V = − rˆ + θ

∂ r r ∂ θ

Qd cosθ Qd sin θ ˆ

= 3

ˆ+

r 3

θ

2πε o r 4πε o r

∴E =

p

[2 cos θ ˆ + sin θθˆ

r ]

4πε o r 3

ELECTROSTATIC FIELDS

• THE ELECTRIC DIPOLE

• Notice that a point charge is a monopole, and its electric

filed varies inversely as r2, while its potential varies

inversely as r.

• For the dipole, we notice that the electric field varies

inversely as r3, while its potential varies inversely as r2.

• The electric fields due to the presence of a quadrupole

(consisting of two dipoles) vary inversely as r4, while the

corresponding potential varies inversely as r3.

• EXAMPLE:

• Two dipoles have dipole moments p1 and p2 are located at

points (0,0,2) and

(0,0,3),−respectively.

Find the potential at

the origin if: p1 = −5 x10 9 zˆ Cm; p 2 = 9 x10 − 9 zˆ Cm

ELECTROSTATIC FIELDS

• THE ELECTRIC DIPOLE

• SOLUTION:

• The potential is given

by:

2 pk .rk 1 p1.r1 p2 .r2

V= ∑ = 3 + 3

3

k =1 4πε o rk 4πε o r1 r2

p1 = −5 x10 − 9 zˆ ; r1 = (0,0,0) − (0,0,−2) = 2 zˆ; r1 = r1 = 2

p2 = 9 x10 − 9 zˆ; r2 = (0,0,0) − (0,0,3) = −3 z; r2 = r2 = 3

ˆ

1 − 10 x10 − 9 27 x10 − 9 10

∴V = − = 9 − − 1 = −20.25V

10 − 9 8 27 8

4π

36π

ELECTROSTATIC FIELDS

• EXAMPLE:

• An electric dipole of

dipole moment p is located at the

−12

origin, where: p = 100 x10 Cm

following points:

• A) (0,0,10).

• B) (1,π/3,π/2)

• ANS: A) E = 1.8 x10 −3 rˆV / m; V = 9 x10 −3V

( )

B) E = 0.9rˆ + 0.78θˆ x10 −3V / m; V = 0.45V

ELECTROSTATIC FIELDS

• ENERGY DENSITY IN ELECTROSTATIC FIELDS

• To determine the energy present in an assembly of

charges, we must first determine the amount of work

necessary to assemble them.

• Suppose we wish to position three point charges Q1, Q2,

and Q3 in an initial empty space shown below.

P1

Q1

P2

P3

Q2

∞

Q3

ELECTROSTATIC FIELDS

• ENERGY DENSITY IN ELECTROSTATIC FIELDS

• No work is required to transfer Q1 from infinity to P1

because the space is initially charge free and there is no

electric field.

• The work done in transferring Q2 from infinity to P2 is equal

to the product of Q2 and the potential V21 at P2 due to Q1.

• Similarly, the work done in positioning Q3 at P3 is equal to

Q3 (V32+V31), where V32 and V31 are the potentials at P3 due

to Q2 and Q1, respectively.

• Hence the total work = W1 +inWpositioning

WEdone 2 + W3 the three charges

is: = 0 + Q2V21 + Q3 (V31 + V32 )

• E = W3positioned

If the chargesWwere + W2 + W1 in reverse order, then:

= 0 + Q2V23 + Q1 (V12 + V13 )

ELECTROSTATIC FIELDS

• ENERGY DENSITY IN ELECTROSTATIC FIELDS

• Here, V23 is the potential at P2 due to Q3, V12 and V13 are

respectively the potentials at P1 due to Q2 and Q3. Thus the

two equations = Q1 (V12 + V13 ) + Q2 (V21 + V23 ) + Q3 (V31 + V32 )

2WEgive:

= Q1V1 + Q2V2 + Q3V3

1

∴WE = ( Q1V1 + Q2V2 + Q3V3 )

2

• Where V1, V2, and V3 are the potentials at P1, P2, and P3,

respectively.

1 n

• In general, if there are

becomes:

= charges,

WEn point

2 k =1

∑

QkVk the above equation

ELECTROSTATIC FIELDS

• ENERGY DENSITY IN ELECTROSTATIC FIELDS

• If, instead of point charges, the region has a continuous

charge distribution, the above summation becomes as

WE = ∫ ρ LVdl ( line ch arg e )

integration: 1

2

WE = ∫ ρ SVdS ( surface ch arg e )

1

2

WE = ∫ ρV Vdv ( volume ch arg e )

1

2

identities:

density by using the vector

ρ v = ∇.D

( )

∇.VA = A.∇V + V ∇. A

( )

∴V ∇. A = ∇.VA − A.∇V

ELECTROSTATIC FIELDS

• ENERGY DENSITY IN ELECTROSTATIC FIELDS

• Therefore we obtain:

1 1

WE = ∫ ρV Vdv = ∫ ∇.D Vdv

2 2

( )

(

1

) 1

( 1

)

= ∫ ∇.D Vdv = ∫ ∇.VD dv − ∫ D.∇V dv

2 2 2

( )

• By applying the divergence theorem to the first term on the

right-hand side of the equation, we have:

( ) ( )

1 1

WE = ∫ VD .dS − ∫ D.∇V dv

2S 2V

dipoles, V varies as 1/r2 and D varies as 1/r3; and so on.

ELECTROSTATIC FIELDS

• Hence VD in the first term on the rhs must vary at least as 1/r3 while

dS varies as r2.

• Consequently the first integral must tend to zero as the surface dS

becomes large.

• Therefore WE reduces to:

1

( )

1

WE = − ∫ D.∇V dv = ∫ D.E dv

2V 2V

( )

1

∴WE = ∫ ε 2

o E dv

2V

ELECTROSTATIC FIELDS

• EXAMPLE:

• Three point charges, -1nC, 4nC, and 3nC, are located at (0,0,0),

(0,0,1), and (1,0,0), respectively. Find the energy in the system.

• SOLUTION:

1 n 1

WE = ∑ Qk Vk = [ Q1V1 + Q2V2 + Q3V3 ]

2 k =1 2

Q2 Q3 4 x10 − 9 3 x10 − 9

V1 = V12 + V13 = + = + = 63V

4πε o (1) 4πε o (1) 10 − 9 10 − 9

4π (1) 4π (1)

36π 36π

Q1 Q3 − 1x10 − 9 3 x10 − 9

V2 = V21 + V23 = + = + = 10.09V

4πε o (1) 4πε o 2 ( )

4π

10 − 9

(1) 4π 10 − 9

2

36π 36π

Q1 Q2 − 1x10 − 9 4 x10 − 9

V3 = V31 + V32 = + = + = 16.46V

4πε o (1) 4πε o 2 ( )

4π

10 − 9

(1) 4π 10 − 9

2

36π 36π

1 1

[( ) ( )

∴WE = [ Q1V1 + Q2V2 + Q3V3 ] = − 1x10 − 9 63 + 4 x10 − 9 10.09 + 3x10 − 9 16.46

2 2

( ) ]

WE = 13.36x10 - 9 J

- Electromagnetic Field Theory [eBook]Uploaded byYusuf Zorba
- Quantum Field TheoryUploaded bypticicaaa
- Two Extended New Approaches to Vacuum, Matter & FieldsUploaded bylbg86
- electromagnetic filed theoryUploaded byAutumn Moon
- Quantum Field Theory - R. Clarkson, D. McKeonUploaded byKepler4246
- Matti Pitkanen- Quantum Hardware of Living MatterUploaded byJoaokaa
- conformal field theoryUploaded bystosicdusan
- qftUploaded bysoundscape84
- field theory Vector AlgebraUploaded byleon619
- Unified Theory Met a Philosophy - 2008 - Csaba VargaUploaded byVarga Csaba
- Neutrosophic Physics, by Florentin SmarandacheUploaded byAnonymous 0U9j6BLllB
- field theory Electrostatics IIUploaded byleon619
- Physics - Introduction to String Field TheoryUploaded byabhkashyap
- Force Field TheoryUploaded byFrancis Maluntag
- Introduction to Path Integrals in Field TheoryUploaded byJunior
- Geometric Algebra and Its Application to Mathematical PhysicsUploaded byhomiya88
- quantum Fields theory - W. SiegelUploaded bymor6382
- Fields-PHYSICSUploaded bypticicaaa
- Advanced Quantum Field TheoryUploaded byVaibhav Kumar Jain
- Complex Geometry and General RelativityUploaded bypiratesof2013
- 24163043 the Sea of Energy in Which the Earth Floats Edition5Uploaded byvisage56
- WhiteheadsTheoryofGravity_BainUploaded byMarc A. Pugliese
- Quantum Field TheoryUploaded bycomplexo
- Alex Kaivarainen- Bivacuum, as a Matrix for Matter, Fields & Time Origination: Virtual Pressure Waves, Virtual Replicas and Overunity DevicesUploaded byJoaokaa
- S. A. Huggett and K. P. Tod- An Introduction to Twistor TheoryUploaded byGum0000
- Aquino - Gravitational-Electromagnetic Field Theory (1992)Uploaded byleosarasua
- TransDimensionalUnifiedFieldTheory8.09Uploaded byMarco Baratta
- Geometry and Group Theory - PopeUploaded byNiflheim
- Total Field TheoryUploaded byKaidukai
- Parallel TransportUploaded bySantiago Casas

- Field Theory Tut2 AnsUploaded byleon619
- Field Theory Tut1 AnsUploaded byleon619
- field theory Vector AlgebraUploaded byleon619
- Field Theory Tut4 AnsUploaded byleon619
- ce14.1Uploaded byleon619
- Field Theory Tut3 AnsUploaded byleon619
- 1.Systems and Simulations (VERY Important)Uploaded byleon619
- Using Quick Field for Field TheoryUploaded byleon619
- Instrumentation Lecture 3Uploaded byleon619
- Tutorial 1Uploaded byleon619
- field theory MAGNETOSTATICSUploaded byleon619
- Instrumentation Lecture 2BUploaded byleon619
- field theory Electrostatics IIUploaded byleon619

- Chapter 8 Problems KeyUploaded byAlyssa Aquino Fuentebella
- 1,2 Relativity ExplainedUploaded byflyfort
- Gc YieldsUploaded byrumisethna9135
- lec14Uploaded byVarun Karthikeyan Shetty
- 201008.034.ProNet.ProNetUploaded bySyed Rizvi
- bgcinvestigtionUploaded byapi-337909133
- Chapter 10 Radioactivity Teacher Guide1Uploaded byFahmi Ami
- Catalyst CatalogueUploaded byyashin21
- 06Names and FormulasUploaded byMasda Arira Helena
- 12 Chemistry Usp 09 Solid StateUploaded byShahbaz Akhtar
- ResoFAST Sample Paper Class XUploaded byShorya Kumar
- The Main CodeUploaded byuser 54
- Dynamic Characteristics of Solids Transportation in Rotary DryersUploaded byPravin Bote
- corrosion rate vs grain size.pdfUploaded byGajendra Pratap Singh
- Electrical EngineeringUploaded byVishal Thakur
- air flow-1.pdfUploaded byAnonymous J1vjrU2
- Fm Mechanical JournalUploaded byAbhimanyu Bhagat
- ACS PracticeTest 2Uploaded byLola Ajao
- Compensation Point EvaluationUploaded byLindsey Jones
- Thermo 5th Chap05 P001Uploaded byJøse Clemente Martinez Ramøs
- 9050 Preparation of Culture MediaUploaded byDiana Andrea Cardona Peña
- Chapter 2 ExerciseUploaded byLyna Jingom
- Chapter 1Uploaded byMani Shanker
- LevellingUploaded byLaura Azwira
- Development of a Large-Scale Process for an HIV Protease Inhibitor.pdfUploaded byNguyen Nhat Duong
- RSES Acids and Their TreatmentUploaded byJohn Ware
- ReactionsUploaded bykaloibest
- Fluid Mechanics – Multiple Choice Questions and Answers (MCQ) - ScholarexpressUploaded bynitesh_kumar079976
- Yearly Lesson Plan Physics Form 5 2015 SmktpiUploaded byhelmi_tarmizi
- Seven TheoriesUploaded byAdedeji Kehinde