Malnutrition

factors
• • • • • • • • Lower socio-economic Lifestyle and work Poor food choices Chronic dieting Chronic dses Dental and other factors Limited access Disorders

Overnutrition
• Overnutrition is a form of malnutrition in which nutrients are oversupplied relative to the amounts required for normal growth, development, and metabolism.

Evaluating Nutritional Disorders
• General
– Weakness and fatigue – Weight Loss
– Anemia or electrolyte imbalance – Dec calorie intake, increased calorie use – Inadequate nutrient intake or absorption

Obesity
• It is defined as excessive body fat in relation to lean body mass.
– Health risk of obesity
• • • • • • Diabetes Heart disease Stroke Hypertension Osteoarthritis Sleep apnea

Hydration Assessment
• An important indicator of the client’s general health status. Adequate hydration can be affected by various situations.

Factors that may affect a person’s hydration status
• Exposure to high/ low temp • Inability to access inadequate fluids • Excessive intake of alcohol or diuretic fluids • Impaired thirst mechanism • Taking diuretic meds • Hyperglycemia • High fevers

Dehydration
• amount of water leaving the body is greater than the amount being taken in.

over hydration
• also called water excess or water intoxication, is a condition in which the body contains too much water. • occurs when the body takes in more water than it excretes and its normal sodium level is diluted.

Physical Assessment
• Equipment
– Balance beam scale with weight and height attachment – Metric measuring tape – Marking pencil – Skin fold calipers

Key points during examination
• Identify the equipment • Explain the importance of assessing the body status of the patient • Educate the client regarding nutritional or health concern

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

EctomorphDefinitive "Hard Gainer" Delicate Built Body Flat Chest Fragile Lean Lightly Muscled Small Shouldered Takes Longer to Gain Muscle Thin Mesomorph Athletic Hard Body Hourglass Shaped (Female) Rectangular Shaped (Male) Mature Muscle Mass Muscular Body Excellent Posture Gains Muscle Easily Gains Fat More Easily Than Ectomorphs Thick Skin Endomorph Soft Body Underdeveloped Muscles Round Physique Weight Loss is Difficult Gains Muscle Easily Like the Mesomorph.

Body Types

Weight and height
• Observe if patient’s wt. and ht varied with their age, gender, ethnic and heritage. • Observe their weight by anthropometric measurements

Determine the Ideal Body Weight and Percentage of IDW
• Female- 100lb. For 5 ft. + 5 lb. each inch • Male 106 lb for 5ft + 6lb for each inch • Note: +- 10% for small or large frame. actual weight IBW X100= %IBW

Body Mass Index
weight in kg/height in m2=BMI Or Weight in pounds/Height in inches x 703=BMI

Classification and range of BMI
• • • • Underweight---- <18.5 Normal----------- 18.5-24.9 Overweight------ 25.0-29.9 Obesity----------- 30.0-34.9 high 35.0-39.9 very high • Extreme obesity- > 40

Determining Waist circumference
• Normal range:
– Female- equal or less than 35 inches or 88 cm. – Male- Equal or less than 40 inches or 102 cm

Mid-arm circumference
• Normal Range
• Female- 28.5 cm • Male- 29.3 cm

Triceps skin fold thickness (TSF)
• Using the skin caliper to measure the thickness • Normal range:
– Female- 16.5mm – Male- 12.5mm

Mid-arm muscle circumference (MAMC)
• MAMC= MAC- (0.314x TSF(mm)) • Standard reference:
– Female- 23.2cm – Male- 25.3cm

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