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Bovine theileriosis

A case study survey at chitwan,Nepal

Dr.Jibachha Sah M.V.Sc (T.U.),VHRTC(P)LTD. B.N.P.-5,Lanku,Narayanagarh,Chitwan,Nepal. Phone:00977-56570726,Email.jibachha@yahoo.com

Theileriosis
It is disease of exotic cattle.

Characterized by high fever,enlargements of superficial lymph nodes,anemia. Prostration & death.

Etiology
Theileria annulata,round,ovoid,rod shaped organism found within erythrocyte . Blue kotch bodies found in lymphoblast of lymph nodes biopsy.

Pathogenesis of theileriosis
When parasite infected tick bites a susceptible animal.first parasite go to lymphnodes and spleen.

Where they invade the lymphocyte multiply ,producing Kochs blue bodies,are merozoints. Early macromerozoites produce micrimerozoites ,entered in blood as piroplasm.

Epidemiology of theileriosis
District Theileria Babesia 16 23 23 Anaplasma Negative Total 4 4 4 7 10 10 40 13 53

Chitwan 13 Gorkha Total 3 16

Graphic presentation of Theileriosis


25 20 15 10 5 0 Theileria Anaplasma

Chitwan Gorkha Total

Heavy tick infested cow

Local cattle are resistant to theileriosis but may carrier

Blue kotch bodies in erythrocyte

Theileria annulata in erythrocyte

Theileria annulata in erythrocyte

Symptoms
Enlargement of superficial lymph nodes

High fever,105 108 F


Increase heart and respiratory rate Labored breathing,serous nasal discharged.

Cont
Coughing,restlessness,coat become rough In latter fever become decline,develop of anemia Jaundice also occurs followed by weakness. Prostration and death.

Heifer suffering from theileriosis enlarged prescapular lymph node

Enlargement of prescapular lymph nodes

Hematology
Fall hemoglobin level ( low as 2 gm/100 ml.).

Decrease TEC (1.5 2 million/cmm),PCV 7-9 % .


Leukocytesis earlier followed by leucopoenia..

Cont
Anisocytosis,polychromasia(many co lour erythrocytes). Comma,ovoid,round shaped organism seen in smears.

Biochemical Change

Low level of calcium & protein in serum.

Postmortem Change
Emaciated ,pale mucous membrane. Distention of gall bladder with thick bile. Punch necrotic ulceration in abomasums. Petechial necrotic hemorrhage on kidney & lungs. Enlarged lymph nodes.

Patecial hemorrhage on kidney in theileriosis

Hemorrhages lymph nodes

Enlargement of cerebellum vein

Punch ulceration in abomasums a pathognomic lesion

Punch ulceration in abomasums a pathognomic lesion

Enlargement of cerebellum vein

Treatment
Buparva quine @ 2.5 mg per kg body wt I/m with supportive therapy. Diminazene diaceturate @ 10 mg /kg body wt + oxy tetracycline @ 20 mg/kg body wt. On four occasion with supportive therapy is beneficial.

prevention
Prevention depends upon tick control.

Tick can be eliminated by repeated dipping.


In endemic area theleria vaccine Raksha Vac- T(Indian Immunological) can be used.