You are on page 1of 83

SOALAN RAMALAN PERCUBAAN SPM 2013 Physic Form 4 & Form 5

Section A
Alat pengukur- fungsi & kepekaan Daya impuls Tekanan Omboh & kiraan Transistor & kegunaan Cahaya- Total internal reflection Haba & kiraan Elektrik- litar selari & siri

Question 1 [ INTRODUCTION TO PHYSICS] Diagram 1.1 and 1.2 shows a vernier calipers and a micrometer screw gauge used to measure the external diameter of a same glass rod.

Diagram 1.1

10 11

Diagram 1.2

(a) What are the readings of vernier calipers and a micrometer screw gauge in centimeter shown in diagram 1.1 and diagram 1.2 ? 1.17 cm , 1.173 cm [ 2 marks ] (b) Based on the Diagram 1.1 and Diagram 1.2, (i) compare the accuracy of the readings The reading in Diagram 1.1 is less accurate than the reading in Diagram 1.2 (ii) compare smallest scales in both measuring instruments. The smallest scale in Diagram 1.1 is larger than the smallest scale in Diagram 1.2 (iii) relate the accuracy readings with the smallest scale used The smaller the smallest scale of an instrument, the more accurate the measurement 1 (iv) relate the sensitivity of instrument readings with the smallest scale used

[ 1 mark ]

[ 1 mark ]

[ 1 mark ]

The smaller the smallest scale of an instrument, the more sensitive the [ 1 mark ] instrument
(v) deduce the relation between the accuracy of reading and sensitivity of instrument. [ 1 mark ] The higher the sensitivity the instrument, the more accurate of the measurement

Change of momentum

Force on surface B is larger than surface A

Time of impact on surface A is longer than on surface B

Constant / unchanged

The shorter the time of impact, the larger the force // force inversely proportional to the time of impact

Sponge / mattress

Higher mass high velocity, high impact / high momentum / high impulsive force

Gravitational potential energy

Kinetic energy

mgh = mv v = 2gh = 2 x 10 x 2.5 v = 7.07 m s

F = (mv mu) / t = [50(7.07) 50(0)] / 0.03 = 11783.3 N

Use parachute To reduce velocity/ momentum

Soft / spongy

Lengthen the time of impact Reduce the impulsive force

Pascals principle same

P = F/A = 50N/0.04m2 =1250Nm-2/Pa

P = F/A F = 1250 x 0.8 = 1000N

Push the handle down several time. Valves A closes and valve B opens. The volume of the liquid increase in the large cylinder. Increase the cross- section area of the large piston to increase the force exerted

Open the release valve.

Electrical energy Heat energy

n-p-n

Because collector current is too small

Interchange the position of LDR and R2

- Magnetic relay / Relay switch - Using small voltage to switch on the second with high voltage

- Lamp L will not glow - because the voltage across YZ (i.e 1.2 V) is less than the base-emitter potential difference of 2 V

n-p-n transistor

12 V

Resistor R1 and R2 are swapped places

27 + 3 = 30 k

to limit the current to transistor

- Resistor R1 is replaced by a thermistor - Lamp L is replaced by an electric bell.

- VP increase - Because resistance at P is higher

- the transistor will switch on the relay switch - Ib will flow through the transistor and Ic will increase

n-p-n transistor - The bulb will not light up because it needs higher voltage/ current to light up

as a switch/automatic switch amplifier

Critical angle

n =

1___ = 1.5 sin 42

i > 42, so total internal reflection occurs


15

Angle of refraction will become smaller// Angle of refraction is more refracted towards normal.
16

Refractive index is the ratio of sin i to sin r

The incident angle in the diamond is more than the critical angle.

The glass block is denser than water, so the light ray is refracted more.

Sin C = 1 = 1_ n 2.4 = 24.62

17

The light rays will be refracted away from the normal

Mirage

Total internal reflection

Density of the cool air is greater than the density of the warm air

18

A process of producing electric/ induced current by changing magnetic field Electromagnetic induction

The magnitude of induced current increases // the rate of change of the magnetic flux increases Cut the magnetic field Induced current is produced.

Number of turns in Diagram 6.1 is greater. Angle of deflection for galvanometer in diagram 6.1 is bigger.

North South

as the number of turns increases, the rate of change of magnetic flux increases hence, induced current increase.

Lenzs law Increases Induced current

The quantity of heat needed to increase the temperature of 1 kg of the substance by 1 C

The material is copper.

because copper have low specific heat capacity

polymer Have high specific heat capacity

Lower mass It is easy to handle

(3.5 X 900 X 90 ) / 800 = 354.4 s

(2.5 X 390 X 90 ) / 800 = 109.7 s

Copper pot

-Voltage for each bub in diagram 8.2 more than diagram 8.1 -Total resistance in diagram 8.2 less than diagram 8.1 // current flow in each bulb in diagram 8.2 is more than in diagram 8.1

Diagram 8.2

When the voltage supplied is 6v the energy produce is 12 J per second

If one bulb blow another bulb can still light up Less effective resistance // more current flow.

Series parallel

Section B
Tekanan cecair (chap 4F4) Redioactive- graf

Weight is gravitation force acting on the object

i) Weight of Q is higher, Water displaced volume Q is higher, Buoyant force acting on Q is higher.

ii) Buoyant force is directly proportional to the volume of water displaced iii) Buoyant force is equal to the weight of water displaced. iv) Archimedes principle

-When the golf ball is completely immersed in water, the water buoyant force is bigger than weight of the ball. -There is a net upward force acting on the ball and the ball move upward. -When the ball is floating, the buoyant force is equal to weight of the ball.

ii) The liquid used is oil


iii)-The liquid must not be compressible, so that the pressure transmission is effective. -The liquid used must have high boiling point, so it will not boil during the operation . iv) The cross section area of the output piston must be bigger than the cross section area of the input piston so that a small force applied to the input piston can lift a much bigger force at the output piston. v) The pressure transmitted is very high, so that pipe material must be strong and can stand for high pressure. The pipe material must not rust and must not corrode.

2005

The half-life is 7 days

Nucleon

Section C
Index biasan- (chap 5 F4) Gelombang elektromagnetic- takrif- (chap 3 F5)

a) Refraction of light

i)

.Velocity of light ray decreases. .The light ray bends towards the normal.

ii) .The light ray at Q incidents at an angle greater than the critical angle of the core and cladding. . The light ray at Q undergoes total internal reflection.

= Sin-1(1/1.50) = 41.81o = Sin-1(1/2.40) = 24.62o

-Use optical in bundle because large signal & light can propagate along them -B, C & D are suitable -For internal reflection to take place, n1 must be greater than n0. -B, C & E are suitable -For use in medical, fiber must be flexible. -A, B & D are suitable -For transmitting signal & light, the inner core must not absorb light energy (very pure) -B & D are suitable -Therefore B is suitable for use in telecommunication & medical. -B provides n1 > n0, has high flexible & purity

Electromagnet is a device in which magnetism is produced by an electric current // temporary magnet made by winding a coil round a soft iron core and magnetic field produce when current flow..

Current flow in diagram 10.2 is more than 10.1 // vice versa. The amount of iron filing attracted by iron core in Diagram 10.2 is more than 10.1 // vice versa. The magnetic strength in diagram 10.2 is more than 10.1 // vice versa. Amount of iron filing attracted increase when current increase The magnetic field strength increase when current increase

When too high current flow, magnetic field strength become very strong / wire expand electromagnet attracts/ pulls the soft iron armature / pulled to the right by spring P. release the catch, contact separate and current does not flow When reset button is pressed, spring Q pulls the soft iron armature back to its original position

Modifications Change slip rings with commutator

Explanations To reverse contact with brushes so that the current flow in same direction in external circuit To increase the magnetic field strength Increase the rate of change of magnetic field/increase the induced current

When the coil rotates the coil cut across the magnetic field lines Induced current flow in the coil. The current maximum when the coil cut the magnetic field at right angle // current decreased (become zero) when the coil move in parallel with magnetic field lines The direction of current flow determine by using Flemings right hand rule After 90o the direction of current in the external circuit reversed/ diagram

Use stronger magnet Use more number of turn for the coil/ Increase the speed of rotation

PHYSIC FORM 4 PAPER 2 SECTION A, B & C

Force and Motion

SU
-To minimize his effective cross-sectional area -To reduces the air resistance acting on him. -He experiences acceleration // To increase velocity Acceleration = gradient of the graph

He has to spread his body so as to increase his effective cross-sectional area. As result, this maximizes the air resistance and reduces his speed

i) Characteristic . The crumple zones must be at the back an front of the bus The wind screen is made of laminated glass The bus has narrow front shape

Explanation It reduces the impulsive force It scatters easily and produce no sharp edges to injure the driver and passengers It reduces the air resistance and air drag

Passenger compartment is made of steel. It is stringer than iron

ii) Bus P is Most suitable because its passenger compartment is made of steel, it has crumple zones at the back and in front of the bus, its windscreen is made of laminated glass and it has narrow front shape.

Equilibrium

cos 30o = T f f = T cos 30o = 86.6o

The resultant force acting on the parcel is zero

sin 30o = 20N Y Y = 20N sin 30o = 40N

Z = cos 30o 40N Z = 40 cos 30o = 34.64N

The tension in Z and Y are more than load of X, strings Y and Z will not break

Bernoullis Principle Low air pressure in region S

-The air pressure below the ball is higher than the air pressure in S. -The difference in air pressure produces a lifting force to the ball. -The lifting force is greater than the weight of the ball.

The rubber ball will drop from the funnel because the weight of the rubber ball is greater than the lifting force

The ball will drop because the lifting force is not large enough to hold the weight of the ball.

Block M

Light (Lenses)

Magnifying lens

Upright, virtual and magnified The image formed is infinity Real, inverted and magnified Real, inverted and same size Real, inverted and diminished

The more the focal length of the lens, the least the power of the lens

MEASURE OF ITS ABILITY to converge or diverge an incident beam of light

-Lens P is the objective lens and lens R is the eyepiece -The distance of separation between lens R and lens P is

Image magnification,

Simple astronomical telescope The focal length of the objective lens is greater than the focal length of the eyepiece. The distance of separation between the objective lens and the eyepiece is fo + fe The image formed is at infinity, virtual, inverted & magnified

Compound microscope The focal length of the objective lens is smaller than the focal length of the eyepiece The distance of separation between the objective lens and the eyepiece is greater than fo + fe The image formed is at not infinity, virtual, inverted and magnified

Focal point, F is incident rays of light travelling parallel to the principal axis, DIVERGE after reflection at convex mirror.

-The radius of curvature (C) in figure 9.1 is grater than the radius of curvature in figure 9.2. -The light ray reflected at a greater angle in figure 9.2 because the focal length in figure 9.2 is smaller than figure 9.1. -Hence, it provides wider field of vision than in figure 9.1. -Radius of curvature = 2 x Focal length of the mirror

Convex mirror Virtual, upright and diminished In a shop, the mirror provides wider field of vision so that the shopkeeper is able to see any activity happening in the shop

i) Reflector of headlight of a motor vehicle

-The headlight bulb is fixed at the focal point of the concave mirror. -Light rays at the back are reflected parallel so that the driver can see far objects.
ii) Reflector of light bulb in an overhead projector

The light bulb is fixed at the centre of curvature of the concave mirror so that the light rays are reflected on the same path to the condenser lens.

i) Reflector of a torch light ii) Transmission of radio waves through a concave reflector

PHYSIC FORM 5 PAPER 2 SECTION A, B & C

Wave

Longitudinal wave

Sound travels faster in water. The speed of sound is faster in a denser medium.

Reflection

A coherent source produces waves of the same frequency and amplitude, and are in the same phase

1.Interference of wave. 2.Interference is the superposition of two waves originating from two coherent sources. 3.Loud sound is caused by constructive interference which occurs when the crest or troughs of both waves coincide. 4.Weak sound is caused by destructive interference which occurs when crest of one wave coincides with the trough of the other wave.

Heat and Electricity

Copper

P = 1500 = I =

VI 240 I 6.25 A

V = 240 = R =

IR 6.25 R 38.4

Electrical energy

Heat energy

Kettle A : E = VIt = (240) (12) (5x60) = 864 kJ Kettle B: E = VIt = (240) (10) (7x60) = 1008 kJ

Kettle C : E = VIt = (240) (8) (3x60) = 345.6 kJ

Kettle C. It is the most suitable because it used the least energy

Transformers

Step-down transformer

Electromagnetic induction

Increase the number of turn of the secondary coil

240V x 60% = 144V


.: Ip = W = 90 = 0.625A V 144

Rectification is the process of converting alternating current to direct current

1.When an alternating current voltage is supplied to the primary coil, an alternating current will flow. 2.The flowing current will produce a magnetic flux and pass through the laminated soft iron core.

3.The laminated soft iron core will become a temporary electromagnet.


4.A change in magnetic flux also occurs in the secondary coil where e.m.f is induced (Vs )

1-To construct a battery charger, a step-down transformer reducing the voltage from 240V to 12V. 2-The ratio of turns of the primary coil (NP ) to the secondary coil (Ns ) :

3-Full-wave rectification will occur if four diodes are used. The use of capacitors will even (smooth) the flow of the output current (d.c) that is produced. 4-Circuit D is chosen because it can step down the voltage from 240 V to 12V and produce a stable current as a result of an even and full wave rectification.

Output voltage of transformer = 12V

For one bulb,

Efficiency of transformer,

Transistor

Transistor acts as a current amplifier in a switch.

When placed in darkness, the LDRs resistance will be high, resulting in a very low base current. The transistor will remain off.

The positions of the LDR and R must be interchanged.

-The LDR must be replaced with a thermistor - the LED must be replaced with a siren

Radioactive

Positive

Isotope are atoms of an element which have the same proton number but different nucleon numbers

Half-life is the time taken for the number of atoms in a given sample to decay to half of its original number

Radium-226 will decay at a faster rate because its half-life is shorter than the half-life of carbon-14

Beta ray ()

G-M tube

By adding sodium-24 to the water that flows in the pipe. The leakage can be detected by slowly moving a G-M tube above the underground pipe. If there is a leakage, the tube will detect a higher reading

An isotope is atoms of an element with the same number of protons but different numbers of neutron An radioisotope is an isotope that is not stable and goes through radioactive decay.

Must have a long half-life Can be used for a long period before changing. This reduces production down-time.

Gamma ray Gamma ray will be able to penetrate the metal sheets.

2. The magnetic field interact with permanent magnetic field 3. It causes a catapult field is formed around the coil. 4. Opposite force is formed which rotates the armature.

1. The power supply is switched on, current flows in the coil forms magnetic field

Item Use a diode and capacitor

Explanation to change a.c to d.c

Replace the slip rings with a commutator to reverse the direction of the current in the armature
Increase the number of turns/ increase the strength of the magnetic field / use an iron core / use thick wires. to increase the strength of the force