Chapter 13
Magnetically coupled circuits
SJTU 2

Mutual inductance
A single inductor:
dt
di
di
d
N
dt
d
N v
N
dt
d
v
 
 
= =
=
=
flux : turns; of number : N
linkage flux :
dt
d
N L while
dt
di
L v

=
=
SJTU 3


12 11 1
   + =
dt
di
L
dt
d
N v
1
1
1
1 1
= =

dt
di
di
d
N
dt
d
N v
1
1
12
2
12
2 2
12 2
 
 
= =
=
dt
d
N M while
dt
di
M v
12
2 21 21 2

= =
Mutual inductance of M
21
of coil 2 with respect to coil 1
SJTU 4

22

21
N
2
N
1
v
2
v
1
i
2
(t)
22 21 2
   + =
dt
di
L
dt
d
N v
2
2
2
2 2
= =

dt
di
di
d
N
dt
d
N v
2
2
21
1
21
1 1
21 1
 
 
= =
=
dt
d
N M while
dt
di
M v
21
1 12
2
12 1

= =
M M M = =
21 12
(for nonmagnetic cores)
SJTU 5
dt
di
L
dt
di
M v
dt
di
M
dt
di
L v
2
2
1
2
2 1
1 1
+ =
+ =
dt
d
N v and
dt
d
N v and
coil
coil
coil
coil
2
2 2 12 2 2
1
1 1 21 1 1

  

  
= + =
= + =
SJTU 6
dt
d
N v and
dt
d
N v and
coil
coil
coil
coil
2
2 2 12 2 2
1
1 1 21 1 1

  

  
= =
= =
dt
di
L
dt
di
M v
dt
di
M
dt
di
L v
2
2
1
2
2 1
1 1
+ =
=
SJTU 7
1
L
2
L
M
 
1
v
+
2
v
+
1
i
2
i
1
L
2
L
M


1
v
+
2
v
+
1
i
2
i
dt
di
L
dt
di
M v
dt
di
M
dt
di
L v
2
2
1
2
2 1
1 1
+ =
=
dt
di
L
dt
di
M v
dt
di
M
dt
di
L v
2
2
1
2
2 1
1 1
+ =
+ =
When the reference direction for a current enters the dotted
terminal of a coil, the reference polarity of the voltage that it
induces in the other coil is positive at its dotted terminal.
Dot convention
SJTU 8
1
L
2
L
M
 
1
v
+
2
v
+
1
i
2
i
Examples
1
L
2
L
M


1
v
+
2
v
+
1
i
2
i
dt
di
L
dt
di
M v
dt
di
M
dt
di
L v
2
2
1
2
2 1
1 1
+ =
=
dt
di
L
dt
di
M v
dt
di
M
dt
di
L v
2
2
1
2
2 1
1 1
+ =
=
How could we determine dot markings if we dont know?
SJTU 9
Series connection
1 2
M
(a)mutually coupled coils in
seriesaiding connection
L
T
=L
1
+L
2
+2M
1 2
M
(b)mutually coupled coils in
seriesopposing connection
L
T
=L
1
+L
2
2M
Total inductance
SJTU 10
Parallel connection
L
1
L
2
I
+
V
M
L
1
L
2
I
+
V
M
(a)mutually coupled coils in
parallelaiding connection
(b)mutually coupled coils in
parallelopposing connection
M L L
M L L
L
e
2
2 1
2
2 1
+
=
Equivalent inductance
M L L
M L L
L
e
2
2 1
2
2 1
+ +
=
SJTU 11
Coefficient of coupling
2 1
L L
M
k =
1 0 s s k
The coupling coefficient k is a measure of the magnetic
coupling between two coils
k < 0.5 loosely coupled;
k > 0.5 tightly coupled.
SJTU 12
Tee model
1
L
2
L
M
 
1
v
+
2
v
+
1
i
2
i
1
L M
2
L M
M
1
v
+
2
v
+
1
i
2
i
1
L
2
L
M


1
v
+
2
v
+
1
i
2
i
1
L M
2
L M
M
1
v
+
2
v
+
1
i
2
i
SJTU 13
TEE MODEL
1
L
2
L
M
1
L M
2
L M
M


Transformerlike Model Tee Model
If Dots on Opposite Sides M M =>
SJTU 14
Examples of the mutual coupled circuits
SJTU 15
Linear transformers
V
R
1
R
2
Z
L
L
1
L
2
M
I
1
I
2
Primary
winding
Secondary
winding
V
R
1
R
2
R
L
+jX
L jwL
1
jwL
2
jwM
I
1
I
2
Model in frequency field
SJTU 16
0 ) (
) (
2 2 2 1
2 1 1 1
= + + + +
= +
I jX jwL R R I jwM
V I jwM I jwL R
L L
22 22
2 2 22
1 1 11
jX R
jX jwL R R Z
jwL R Z let
L L
+ =
+ + + =
+ =
Total selfimpedance of the mesh
containing the primary winding
Total selfimpedance of the mesh
containing the secodary winding
22
2
22
11
2
22
2
11
1
1
Z
X
Z
Z
V Z
I
Z
X
Z
V
I then
M
M
M
+
=
+
=
SJTU 17
V
R
1
jwL
1
I
1
Zr (reflected
impedance)
22
2
11
1
Z
X
Z
V
I
M
+
=
Zr
reflected impedance
Equivalent primary winding circuit
22
2
22
2
22
2
22
2
22
2
22
2
X
X R
X
Xr
R
X R
X
Rr then
jXr Rr Zr let
M
M
+
=
+
=
+ =
(reflected resistance)
(reflected reactance)
SJTU 18
Z
22
I
2
11
2
Z
X
M
11
Z
V Z
S M
Equivalent secondary winding circuit
22
2
22
11
2
1
Z
X
Z
Z
V Z
I
M
M
+
=
SJTU 19
Ideal transformer
+

+

1
V
2
V
1
I
2
I
1: n
three properties:
1. The coefficient of coupling is unity
(k=1)
2. The self and mutual inductance of
each coil is infinite (L
1
=L
2
=M=),
but is definite.
3. Primary and secondary coils are
lossless.
n N
N
t i
t i
I
I
n
N
N
t v
t v
V
V
1
) (
) (
) (
) (
2
1
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
= = =
= = =
n N
N
L
L 1
2
1
2
1
= =
SJTU 20
+

+

1
V
2
V
1
I
2
I
1: n
n N
N
t i
t i
I
I
n
N
N
t v
t v
V
V
1
) (
) (
) (
) (
2
1
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
= = =
= = =
+

+

1
V
2
V
1
I
2
I
1: n
n N
N
t i
t i
I
I
n
N
N
t v
t v
V
V
1
) (
) (
) (
) (
2
1
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
= = =
= = =
+

+

1
V
2
V
1
I
2
I
1: n
n N
N
t i
t i
I
I
n
N
N
t v
t v
V
V
1
) (
) (
) (
) (
2
1
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
= = =
= = =
SJTU 21
Transformer as a matching device
+

+

1
V
2
V
1
I
2
I
1: n
R
L

+

+
1
V
2
V
1
I
2
I
1: n
R
L
/n
2
+

+
1
V
2
V
1
I
2
I
1: n
R

+

+
1
V
2
V
1
I
2
I
1: n
R

n
2
R
SJTU 22
Transformer as a matching device
+

+

1
V
2
V
1
I
2
I
1: n
R
L
Zin
2
n
Z
Z
L
in
=
Vs1
Z
1
Z
2
/n
2
Vs2/n
Vs2
Vs1
Z
1
Z
2
1: n
I
1
I
2
Thevenin
equivalent
SJTU 23
Vs2
Vs1
Z
1
Z
2
1: n
I
1
I
2
nVs1
n
2
Z
1
Z
2
Vs2
SJTU 24
Solving Ideal Transformer Problem
Method 1: Write out equations first
Loop equations or Nodal equations
Two more transformer equations
Method 2 : Form equivalent circuit first
Reflecting into secondary
Reflecting into primary
2
1 eq
n = Z Z
1 eq s
n = V V
2
2
eq
n
=
Z
Z
2 s
eq
n
=
V
V
V
s1
V
s2
Z
1
Z
2
1: n
SJTU 25
The Ideal Transformer
SJTU 26
General transformer model
1. Lossless, k=1, but L
1
,L
2
,M are not infinite
+

+

1
V
2
V
1
I
2
I
L1 L2
M
+

+

1
V
2
V
1
I
2
I
1: n
L1
1
2
L
L
n =
SJTU 27
General transformer model
2. Lossless, k1, L
1
,L
2
,M are not infinite
+

+

1
V
2
V
1
I
2
I
L1 L2
M
+

+

1
V
2
V
1
I
2
I
1: n
L
M
L
S1
L
S2
nM L L
n
M
L
n
M
L L then
L
L
n let
S
M
S
=
=
= =
2 2
1 1
2
1
SJTU 28
General transformer model
3. No restriction
+

+

1
V
2
V
1
I
2
I
L1 L2
M
+

+

1
V
2
V
1
I 2
I
1: n
L
M
L
S1 L
S2
/n
2
R1
R
2
/n
2
SJTU 29
SUMMARY
Mutual inductance, M, is the circuit parameter relating the
voltage induced in one circuit to a timevarying current in
another circuit.
The coefficient of coupling, k, is the measure of the degree
of magnetic coupling. By definition, 0k1
The relationship between the selfinductance of each
winding and the mutual inductance between the windings
is
The dot convention establishes the polarity of mutually
induced voltage
Reflected impedance is the impedance of the secondary
circuit as seen from the terminals of the primary circuit, or
vise versa.
2 1
L L k M =
SJTU 30
SUMMARY
The twowinding linear transformer is a coupling device
made up of two coils wound on the same nonmagnetic core.
An ideal transformer is a lossless transformer with unity
coupling coefficient(k=1) and infinite inductance.
An ideal transformer can be used to match the magnitude of
the load impedance, Z
L
, to the magnitude of the source
impedance, Z
S
, thus maximizing the amount of average
power transferred.