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UNIT - 2

Emotions- Why Emotions Were Ignored in OB

The myth of rationality
Organizations are not emotion-free.

Emotions of any kind are disruptive to organizations.

Original OB focus was solely on the effects of strong negative emotions that interfered with individual and organizational efficiency.

What Are Emotions?

A broad range of emotions that people experience.



Intense feelings that are directed at someone or something.

Feelings that tend to be less intense than emotions and that lack a contextual stimulus.

What Are Emotions? (contd)

Felt versus Displayed Emotions

Emotion Dimensions
Variety of emotions
Positive Negative

Intensity of emotions
Personality Job Requirements

Frequency and duration of emotions

How often emotions are exhibited. How long emotions are displayed.

Facial Expressions Convey Emotions

Emotion Continuum
The closer any two emotions are to each other on the continuum, the more likely people are to confuse them.

Gender and Emotions

Can show greater emotional expression. Experience emotions more intensely. Display emotions more frequently. Are more comfortable in expressing emotions. Are better at reading others emotions.

Believe that displaying emotions is inconsistent with the male image. Are innately less able to read and to identify with others emotions. Have less need to seek social approval by showing positive emotions.

External Constraints on Emotions

Organizational Influences Cultural Influences

Individual Emotions

OB Applications of Understanding Emotions

Ability and Selection
Emotions affect employee effectiveness.

Decision Making
Emotions are an important part of the decisionmaking process in organizations.

Emotional commitment to work and high motivation are strongly linked.

Emotions are important to acceptance of messages from organizational leaders.

OB Applications of Understanding Emotions

Interpersonal Conflict
Conflict in the workplace and individual emotions are strongly intertwined.

Deviant Workplace Behaviors

Negative emotions can lead to employee deviance in the form of actions that violate established norms and threaten the organization and its members.
Productivity failures Property theft and destruction Political actions Personal aggression

Emotional Intelligence (EI) Self-awareness Self-management Self-motivation Empathy Social skills Research Findings High EI scores, not high IQ scores, characterize high performers.

Values Basic convictions that a specific mode of conduct or end-state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end-state of existence. Value System

A hierarchy based on a ranking of an individuals values in terms of their intensity.

Importance of Values
Provide understanding of the attitudes, motivation, and behaviors of individuals and cultures. Influence our perception of the world around us. Represent interpretations of right and wrong.

Imply that some behaviors or outcomes are preferred over others.

Terminal Values

Types of Values - Rokeach Value Survey

Desirable end-states of existence; the goals that a person would like to achieve during his or her lifetime.

Instrumental Values

Preferable modes of behavior or means of achieving ones terminal values.

Values in the Rokeach Survey

Values in the Rokeach Survey (contd)

Values, Loyalty, and Ethical Behavior

Ethical Values and Behaviors of Leaders

Ethical Climate in the Organization

Hofstedes Framework for Assessing Cultures

Power Distance
The extent to which a society accepts that power in institutions and organizations is distributed unequally.

low distance: relatively equal distribution high distance: extremely unequal distribution

Hofstedes Framework (contd)

Individualism The degree to which people prefer to act as individuals rather than a member of groups. Collectivism A tight social framework in which people expect others in groups of which they are a part to look after them and protect them.

Hofstedes Framework (contd)

Achievement The extent to which societal values are characterized by assertiveness, materialism and competition. Nurturing The extent to which societal values emphasize relationships and concern for others.

Hofstedes Framework (contd)

Uncertainty Avoidance
The extent to which a society feels threatened by uncertain and ambiguous situations and tries to avoid them.

Hofstedes Framework (contd)

Long-term Orientation A national culture attribute that emphasizes the future, thrift, and persistence.

Short-term Orientation A national culture attribute that emphasizes the past and present, respect for tradition, and fulfilling social obligations.

The GLOBE Framework for Assessing Cultures

Assertiveness Future Orientation Gender differentiation Uncertainty avoidance Power distance Individual/collectivism In-group collectivism Performance orientation Humane orientation

Cognitive component

Evaluative statements or judgments concerning objects, people, or events.

The opinion or belief segment of an attitude.

Affective Component
The emotional or feeling segment of an attitude.

Behavioral Component
An intention to behave in a certain way toward someone or something.

Types of Attitudes
Job Satisfaction A collection of positive and/or negative feelings that an individual holds toward his or her job.

Job Involvement Identifying with the job, actively participating in it, and considering performance important to self-worth. Organizational Commitment Identifying with a particular organization and its goals, and wishing to maintain membership in the organization.

The Theory of Cognitive Dissonance

Cognitive Dissonance
Any incompatibility between two or more attitudes or between behavior and attitudes.

Desire to reduce dissonance

Importance of elements creating dissonance Degree of individual influence over elements

Rewards involved in dissonance

Measuring the A-B Relationship

Recent research indicates that attitudes (A) significantly predict behaviors (B) when moderating variables are taken into account.
Moderating Variables
Importance of the attitude
Specificity of the attitude Accessibility of the attitude Social pressures on the individual Direct experience with the attitude

Self-Perception Theory
Attitudes are used after the fact to make sense out of an action that has already occurred.

An Application: Attitude Surveys

Attitude Surveys Eliciting responses from employees through questionnaires about how they feel about their jobs, work groups, supervisors, and the organization.

Sample Attitude Survey

Attitudes and Workforce Diversity

Training activities that can reshape employee attitudes concerning diversity:
Participating in diversity training that provides for self-evaluation and group discussions. Volunteer work in community and social serve centers with individuals of diverse backgrounds. Exploring print and visual media that recount and portray diversity issues.

Job Satisfaction
Measuring Job Satisfaction
Single global rating Summation score

How Satisfied Are People in Their Jobs?

Job satisfaction declined to 50.4% in 2002 Decline attributed to:
Pressures to increase productivity and meet tighter deadlines Less control over work

The Effect of Job Satisfaction on Employee Performance

Satisfaction and Productivity
Satisfied workers arent necessarily more productive. Worker productivity is higher in organizations with more satisfied workers.

Satisfaction and Absenteeism

Satisfied employees have fewer avoidable absences.

Satisfaction and Turnover

Satisfied employees are less likely to quit. Organizations take actions to retain high performers and to weed out lower performers.

How Employees Can Express Dissatisfaction

Behavior directed toward leaving the organization.

Active and constructive attempts to improve conditions.

Passively waiting for conditions to improve.

Allowing conditions to worsen.

Responses to Job Dissatisfaction

Job Satisfaction and OCB

Satisfaction and Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB)
Satisfied employees who feel fairly treated by and are trusting of the organization are more willing to engage in behaviors that go beyond the normal expectations of their job.

Job Satisfaction and Customer Satisfaction

Satisfied employees increase customer satisfaction because:
They are more friendly, upbeat, and responsive. They are less likely to turnover which helps build long-term customer relationships. They are experienced.

Dissatisfied customers increase employee job dissatisfaction.

Any relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result of experience.

Involves change Is relatively permanent

Is acquired through experience

Theories of Learning
Classical Conditioning
A type of conditioning in which an individual responds to some stimulus that would not ordinarily produce such a response.

Source: The Far Side by Gary Larson 1993 Far Works, Inc. All rights reserved. Used with permission.


Theories of Learning (contd)

Operant Conditioning
A type of conditioning in which desired voluntary behavior leads to a reward or prevents a punishment.

Key Concepts Reflexive (unlearned) behavior Conditioned (learned) behavior Reinforcement

Theories of Learning (contd)

Social-Learning Theory
People can learn through observation and direct experience.

Key Concepts
Attentional processes Retention processes Motor reproduction processes Reinforcement processes

Theories of Learning (contd)

Shaping Behavior
Systematically reinforcing each successive step that moves an individual closer to the desired response. Key Concepts
Reinforcement is required to change behavior. Some rewards are more effective than others. The timing of reinforcement affects learning speed and permanence.

Types of Reinforcement
Positive reinforcement
Providing a reward for a desired behavior.

Negative reinforcement
Removing an unpleasant consequence when the desired behavior occurs.

Applying an undesirable condition to eliminate an undesirable behavior.

Withholding reinforcement of a behavior to cause its cessation.

Schedules of Reinforcement
Continuous Reinforcement A desired behavior is reinforced each time it is demonstrated.

Intermittent Reinforcement A desired behavior is reinforced often enough to make the behavior worth repeating but not every time it is demonstrated.

Schedules of Reinforcement (contd)

Fixed-Interval Schedule Rewards are spaced at uniform time intervals.

Variable-Interval Schedule
Rewards are initiated after a fixed or constant number of responses.

Schedules of Reinforcement (contd)


Intermittent Schedules of Reinforcement

Intermittent Schedules of Reinforcement (contd)

Behavior Modification
OB Mod
The application of reinforcement concepts to individuals in the work setting.
Five Step Problem-Solving Model

1. Identify critical behaviors

2. Develop baseline data 3. Identify behavioral consequences 4. Develop and apply intervention 5. Evaluate performance improvement

OB MOD Organizational Applications

Well Pay versus Sick Pay
Reduces absenteeism by rewarding attendance, not absence.

Employee Discipline
The use of punishment can be counter-productive.

Developing Training Programs

OB MOD methods improve training effectiveness.

Reduces the need for external management control.