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1. OBJECTIVES
a.

To calibrate and adjust and to know the internal mechanism of a Bourdon Dead Weight Gage Tester. b. To familiarize oneself with the different types of pressure and temperature measuring devices. ( Optical and Radiation Pyrometers) c. To calibrate thermometers with the known melting and boiling points.

2. THEORY / HYPOTHESIS
Many of the instruments used to monitor systems or

processes in a plant measure pressure. In order to understand how these instruments operate, instrument technicians must understand: a. the concept of pressure b. the ways in which solids, liquids, and gases exert pressure c. the standards established for measurement.

## 2. THEORY / HYPOTHESIS (cont..)

Pressure is the force applied per unit of area. Gravity is a

force applied to everything on earth. The force of gravity exerts a downward pull on all forms of matter, causing them to have weight. It is possible to determine the pressure exerted by solid, liquids, and gases by determining the force they exert over a given area. In this unit, force is applied by weight due to the effect of gravity.
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## 2. THEORY / HYPOTHESIS (cont..)

The definition for pressure, that is, the force applied per

unit of area, can be expressed in terms of a mathematical formula: P=F/A where : P = pressure F = force A = area

## 2. THEORY / HYPOTHESIS (cont..)

In metric system, the common unit of pressure is the

PASCAL. However, the PASCALS represent such a small quantity that pressure is generally expressed in kiloPascals. The metric unit for force is Newton, and the metric unit for area is the square meter. Matter is considered a solid if it retains a definite shape and volume.

## 2. THEORY / HYPOTHESIS (cont..)

Liquids unlike solids, do not have a definite shape.

However, liquids do have a definite measurable weight and volume. The pressure exerted by liquids can be divided into two groups: hydraulic pressures and static pressures. Hydraulic pressures are the pressures exerted by liquids in motion, such as the pressures created by a mechanical pump.

## 2. THEORY / HYPOTHESIS (cont..)

Hydrostatic pressures are pressure exerted by liquids at

rest, that is, liquids that are not in motion. Hydrostatic pressure is determined by the height of a fluid, not by its volume. Hydrostatic pressures increase with depth, due to the weight of the liquid pushing down from above.

## 2. THEORY / HYPOTHESIS (cont..)

Gases differ from solids and liquids in that they have

neither a definite shape nor a definite volume. Gases do have weight, however due to the force of gravity, so gases do exert pressure.

## 2. THEORY / HYPOTHESIS (cont..)

Atmospheric pressure is factor that must be considered

whenever pressure measurements are taken, because the earth is always subjected to some atmospheric pressure, with the amount being dependent on altitude and weather conditions. Consequently, the scales that have been established as a basis for pressure measurement reference atmospheric pressure, although in different ways.

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## 2. THEORY / HYPOTHESIS (cont..)

The two scales most commonly used in pressure

measurements both reference atmospheric pressure: the absolute scale references the absence of atmospheric pressure, while the gage scale reference the presence of atmospheric pressure

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## 2. THEORY / HYPOTHESIS (cont..)

It is possible to convert pressure measurements back and

forth from the absolute scale to the gauge scale because the basic unit of measurement for both scales is pounds per square inch (psi). Absolute pressure equals gauge pressure plus atmospheric pressure.

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## 2. THEORY / HYPOTHESIS (cont..)

Conversely, gauge pressure equals absolute pressure minus

atmospheric pressure can be expressed in the following equation Pabs = Pgauge + Patm Pgauge = Pabs - Patm wherein : Pabs = absolute pressure Pgauge = gauge pressure Patm = atmospheric pressure Vacuum pressure is any pressure below the atmospheric pressure.
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## 2. THEORY / HYPOTHESIS (cont..)

Bourdon tube pressure elements are commonly used to

measure a wide range of pressures. They are made of many materials, including bronze, brass, and stainless steel. The type of material used to make a particular Bourdon tube is generally determined by: a. the type of process it is designed to measure. b. The range of pressures it measures.

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## 2. THEORY / HYPOTHESIS (cont..)

For most part, Bourdon tubes are made of strong, rugged

materials, that is designed to handle pressure ranging from 5 psi to thousand of psi. However, Bourdon tubes are sometimes designed and constructed to measure very small pressure and vacuum.

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## 2. THEORY / HYPOTHESIS (cont..)

The tube is made of oval thin-walled metal. One end of

the tube is open; the other end, called the tip is closed. The open end of the tube is attached to a socket, or base, which contains an inlet passage way to the inside of the tube. The pressure source is connected to the socket, so pressure goes from the source through the inlet into the tube.

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## 2. THEORY / HYPOTHESIS (cont..)

When pressure is applied to a Bourdon tube, the tube

moves. Depending on the design of the element and the type of pressure applied, Bourdon tube is either try to straighten out or to coil. However, the distance that the tip travels when pressure is applied is relatively small. In most cases, it is around 1/4 to 3/8 of an inch. The amount of tip travel is proportional to the amount of applied pressure.

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## 2. THEORY / HYPOTHESIS (cont..)

A pointer mechanism, connected to the tip by a

mechanical linkage, converts the small amount of tip travel to a larger amount of the pointer travel that is easier to read. All thermometers are designed so that temperature are indicated on one or more four scale: Fahrenheit, Celsius, Rankine, and Kelvin.

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## 2. THEORY / HYPOTHESIS (cont..)

In order to compare temperature readings from different

scales, it is necessary to convert temperature readings from one scale to another. The formula for converting from degrees Celsius to degrees Fahrenheit is as follows: oF = (1.8 x oC) + 32

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## 2. THEORY / HYPOTHESIS (cont..)

This formula was derived by using the freezing and

boiling points of water as reference points. Since there are 180 degrees between the freezing and boiling points of water on the Fahrenheit scale and 100 degrees between two points on the Celsius scale, the ratio of degrees Fahrenheit to degrees Celsius is 180:100. In other words, there are 1.8 times as many degrees between freezing and boiling on the Fahrenheit scale as there are on the Celsius scale (180/100 = 1.8).

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## 2. THEORY / HYPOTHESIS (cont..)

Furthermore, because the freezing temperature of water

is 32 degrees higher for Fahrenheit than for Celsius, 32 must be added to (1.8 x oC) to make both sides accurate and reliable temperature measuring instruments help industrial facilities operate with maximum safety and efficiency. In industry, thermometers are used to monitor and in some cases control the temperature of process system.

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## 2. THEORY / HYPOTHESIS (cont..)

An understanding of how temperature measuring devices

operate depends on understanding the concept of temperature and the ways in which solids, liquids, and gases respond to temperature changes.

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## 2. THEORY / HYPOTHESIS (cont..)

Temperature is the degree of hotness or coldness of a

substance, as measured on a definite scale. The relative hotness or coldness of a substance is often determined by the sense of touch. Things feel hot if their temperature is higher than skin temperature, or cold if their temperature is lower than skin temperature. However, the sense of touch is not enough to be an effective and reliable method of temperature measurement; instruments marked with definite scales are needed.
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## 2. THEORY / HYPOTHESIS (cont..)

A thermometer is a commonly used instrument that

measures and indicates temperature. But temperatures of very hot surface body like the blast furnace, bed of coal, fire tube type boilers and the like, optical and radiation pyrometers are used.

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## 2. THEORY / HYPOTHESIS (cont..)

To understand temperature completely, it is necessary to

distinguish between temperature and heat. The terms heat and temperature are often used interchangeably, but their meanings are not the same. Heat is the thermal energy of a substance. The addition or removal of heat is what causes temperature to increase or decrease. Because heat is not the same as temperature, heat is measured in units rather than degrees.

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## 2. THEORY / HYPOTHESIS (cont..)

Two units often used to measure heat are the British

Thermal Unit (BTU) and the calorie. A BTU is the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water one degree Fahrenheit. A calorie is the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of water one degree Celsius.

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3. LIST OF APPARATUS
a.

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## 3. LIST OF APPARATUS (cont..)

b. Set of Standard Weights

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c.

Thermometer

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## 3. LIST OF APPARATUS (cont..)

d. Optical Pyrometer

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e.

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f.

Beakers

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g.

Bunsen Burner

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## 3. LIST OF APPARATUS (cont..)

h. Steam Bath

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4. SET-UP OF APPARATUS:

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5. PROCEDURE:
A. Calibration of Bourdon Gage By Dead Weight Gage

Tester 1. Open the handwheel fully and the valve of the oil reservoir. 2. Fill up the oil reservoir up to its desired level and open the drain valve. 3. To eliminate or remove the air trapped inside the oil cylinder, tightened the handwheel slowly so that the oil will spill out through the drain cock.
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5. PROCEDURE: (cont..)
4.

Close the drain valve. 5. Twist the rotating plunger to minimize friction. 6. Close the handwheel slowly until the platform rises to approximately one cm. Record the pressure reading. 7. Add weights one after the other with an increment stated on the data sheet and make 12 trials repeating procedure no. 6.

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5. PROCEDURE: (cont..)
8.

After all weights have been placed, get the difference between the standard equivalent pressure and the gage pressure readings. 9. Compute for the percentage of error.

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5. PROCEDURE: (cont..)
A. Calibration by Reference the Known Melting and

Boiling Points a. For Melting Point 1. Place the ice into the graduated cylinder. 2. Place the mercury thermometer into the cylinder and lower the thermometer until the bulb is near the bottom.

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5. PROCEDURE: (cont..)
3.

Leaving the ice to melt, read the temperature on the thermometer. There will come a point when the temperature is stable. Record this temperature as the melting point of the ice.

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5. PROCEDURE: (cont..)
b. For Boiling Point
1.

Place a fair amount of water on the steam bath. 2. Place the thermometer in the steam bath through the desired location. 3. Make a flame with the Bunsen burner place at the bottom of the apparatus. 4. There will come a point when the water will begin to boil. Read the thermometer and record the result as the boiling point reading of the thermometer.
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## 6. DATA AND RESULTS:

A.
1.

Increasing Weight

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## 6. DATA AND RESULTS: (cont..)

2.

Decreasing Weights

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## 6. DATA AND RESULTS: (cont..)

B.

Calibration By Reference The Known Melting and Boiling Points Melting Point = ______________oC Boiling Point = _______________oC

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7. SAMPLE COMPUTATION:

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8. QUESTIONS:
1.

Convert 60F to degrees Celsius, to the nearest tenth of a degree. 2. Encircle the correct answer. Mercury is commonly used in fluid thermometers because a. It is expensive. b. It expands and contracts at a consistent rate. c. It forms a convex meniscus. d. It forms a concave meniscus.

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8. QUESTIONS: (cont..)
3.

If the temperature indicated on two thermometers measuring the same process read differently, then it is likely that

_______________________________________________

_______________________________________________ ____________________________. 4. True or False Ambient temperature changes have a little effect on partial immersion thermometers.
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8. QUESTIONS: (cont..)
5.

True or False Mercury freezes at a lower temperature than a mercurythallium alloy. 6. An inclined tube manometer has an angle of 30 degrees and is calibrated to read directly in head of water when a gauge liquid with a specific gravity of 0.832 is used. The cross sectional area of the tank is 6 times that of the tube and tube is 64.52 mm2. Determine the vertical rise of liquid in the tank in terms of rise of liquid along the inclined manometer.
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8. QUESTIONS: (cont..)
7.

A mercury manometer is used to determine the pressure of oil with a specific gravity of .91 in a cast iron pipe. The interface level is 500 mm below the center line of the cast iron pipe and the level in the open leg of the manometer is 175 mm above the interface level. Determine the oil pressure in the pipe in kg/cm2. 8. An incline manometer has a sensitivity 10 times as great as a vertical pipe. What must its angle be to provide this sensitivity?

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8. QUESTIONS: (cont..)
9.

In manometer readings, one often encounter vacuum and gauge pressure readings. Why? 10. An incline water manometer is used to measure the pressure of gas in a main. The open leg is included at angle of 30 degrees from the horizontal and the reading on the inclined leg is 150 mm using the vertical leg as datum. What is the gas pressure in kpa, psi and bar?

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9.

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END

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