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The International Pharmacopoeia and International Chemical Reference Substances

Rabat 29/11/2007 Quality Assurance and Safety: Medicines World Health Organization
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The International Pharmacopoeia Int.Ph.


1. Introduction

2. Special features
3. Example of a monograph 4. WHOs strategy in QC 5. WHOs related activities

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WHO Procedure for the preparation of drug Quality Control specifications (1) ..or why it takes so long.
Preliminary consultation and drafting

Draft Quality Control specifications


Method development + validation: WHO Collaborating Centres and experts, contracted laboratories Circulation for comments + testing of samples Revision process, additional studies, contacts with manufacturers for queries and additional samples as needed

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WHO Procedure for the preparation of drug Quality Control specifications (2)

Adoption by WHO Expert Committee on Specifications for Pharmaceutical Preparations

Presentation to WHO Governing Bodies


Recommendation to governments for implementation publication in Technical Reports and The International Pharmacopoeia and Basic Tests series
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WHO does the work with Partners


National and regional authorities International organizations (UNAIDS, UNICEF, World Bank, etc.) International professional and other associations, NGOs (including consumer associations, industry) WHO Expert Panels (official nomination process) Specialists from all areas, regulatory, university, industry WHO Collaborating Centres (official nomination process) Pharmacopoeia Commissions and Secretariats, national institutions and institutes .. Regional and interregional groups (ICH)

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Type of monographs
Drug substances

Excipients
Finished dosage forms General methods and requirements: oral dosage forms, e.g. tablets dissolution testing

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Some Figures - 3rd edition


Volume 1: 42 General methods and requirements Volume 2: 88 Active pharmaceutical ingredients Volume 3: 100 Active pharmaceutical ingredients

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Some Figures - 3rd edition


Volume 4:
23 Active pharmaceutical ingredients 65 Excipients 25 Oral dosage forms 14 Injectables

11 General methods and requirements

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Some Figures - 3rd edition


Volume 5: 20 Oral dosage forms 39 Active pharmaceutical ingredients 9 General methods and requirements Special section on antimalarial agents, artemisinin derivatives: 5 Active pharmaceutical ingredients 8 Oral dosage forms + General guidance texts on INNs, graphic formulae, establishment of RS...

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4th edition - new


Consolidated in 2 Volumes + CD-ROM: Vol 1 - pharmaceutical substances (A-O) Vol 2 - pharmaceutical substances (P-X) + dosage forms + radiopharmaceuticals + methods of analysis + reagents New: Monographs on antiretrovials Revision of existing monographs Improved presentation Improved cross-referencing to general methods CD-ROM: improved search functions
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4th edition - new


New list of impurities shown to be controlled by tests

More to come, first supplement in preparation to cover: New monographs for ARVs, TB and Malaria medicines, Revision of others, e.g. to include dissolution tests For pre-information visit the WHO web site:
http://www.who.int/medicines/publications/pharmacopoeia/overview/

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New Specifications adopted by 40th WHO Expert Committee


ARVs/APIs: - abacavir sulfate, - efavirenz, - lamivudine, stavudine, - zidovudine;

ARVs/finished products: - nelfinavir mesilate tablets, nelfinavir mesilate oral powder, and - saquinavir mesilate capsules fixed-dose antituberculosis medicines: - rifampicin tablets, - rifampicin capsules, - rifampicin + isoniazid tablets, rifampicin + isoniazid + pyrazinamide + ethambutol HCl tablets, - isoniazid + ethambutol HCl tablets, - rifampicin + isoniazid + pyrazinamide tablets

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New Specifications adopted by 41st WHO Expert Committee - ARVs


Abacavir oral solution Abacavir sulfate tablets Didanosine tablets Didanosine oral solution (adult formulation) Lamivudine oral solution Lamivudine tablets Stavudine capsules Zidovudine capsules Zidovudine IV injection Zidovudine oral solution Zidovudine and Lamivudine tablets Zidovudine, Lamivudine and Abacavir tablets

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New Specifications adopted by 41st WHO Expert Committee antimalarial medicines

Doxycycline hyclate capsules (new monograph) Doxycycline hyclate tablets (revision) Doxycycline hyclate (revision)

Lumefantrine (new monograph) - subject to further studies

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New Specifications adopted by 41st WHO Expert Committee revisions (dissolution)


Metronidazole tablets Doxycycline tablets Isoniazid tablets Chloroquine phosphate tablets Primaquine diphosphate tablets Ethambutol hydrochloride tablets Pyrazinamide tablets Rifampicin capsules Rifampicin tablets

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Specifications distributed for comments

Oral liquids

Artemether and lumefantrine tablets


Lumefantrine Oseltamivir phosphate Zinc sulfate Zinc sulfate oral solution

Zinc sulfate tablets


Magnesium sulfate injection

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WHOs strategy for quality control


Step-wise approach:

Basic tests (identification) Screening tests (TLC) The International Pharmacopoeia International reference materials (ICRS and IR reference spectra)

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Int. Ph. and links with other programmes and organizations


Establishment of monographs for antiretrovirals

collaboration Ph.Eur. USP, JP, IP, Chinese Pharmacopoeia, Brazilian Pharmacopoeia ... collaboration with manufacturers links with WHO-UNICEF project on prequalification of suppliers for HIV drugs

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International Pharmacopoeia Special features:


1. .when complex, technically demanding methods are described (e.g. HPLC), --> a less technically demanding analytical method (e.g. TLC) proposed as alternative (if possible). 2. . international validation - impurity profile can vary from country to country!!

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Indinaviri sulfas - Indinavir sulfate

C36H47N5O4,H2O4S Relative molecular mass. 711.9 Chemical name. (2S)-1-[(2S,4R)-4-benzyl-2-hydroxy-5[[(1S,2R)-2-hydroxy-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-1-yl] amino]-5-oxopentyl]-N-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-4-(pyridin-3-ylmethyl) piperazine-2-carboxamide sulfate; CAS Reg. No. 157810-81-6.
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Indinaviri sulfas - Indinavir sulfate


Description. A white or almost white powder. Solubility. Freely soluble in water, soluble in methanol. Category. Antiretroviral (protease inhibitor). Storage. Indinavir sulfate should be kept in a tightly closed container, protected from light. Additional information. Indinavir sulfate occurs as the monoethanolate which is hygroscopic. It converts to the hydrate upon loss of ethanol and exposure to moist air. Requirements Definition. Indinavir sulfate contains not less than 98.5% and not more than 101.0% of C36H47N5O4,H2O4S calculated on anhydrous, ethanol free basis.

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Indinaviri sulfas - Indinavir sulfate


Identity tests Either tests A, B and D, or tests C and D may be applied. A. Carry out test A.1. or, where UV detection is not available, test A.2. A.1. Carry out the test as described under 1.14.1 Thin-layer chromatography, using silica gel R6 as the coating substance and a mixture of 8 volumes of dichloromethane R and 2 volumes of 2-propanol as the mobile phase. Apply separately to the plate 10 l of each of 2 solutions in methanol containing (A) 5 mg of the test substance per ml and (B) 5 mg of indinavir RS per ml. After removing the plate from the chromatographic chamber, allow it to dry exhaustively in a current of cool air. Examine the chromatogram in ultraviolet light (254 nm). The principal spot obtained with solution A corresponds in position, appearance, and intensity with that obtained with solution B.

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Indinaviri sulfas - Indinavir sulfate


B. The absorption spectrum of a 0.100 mg/ml solution, when observed between 220 nm and 280 nm, exhibits one maximum at about 260 nm; the specific absorbance is between 56 and 65. C. Dissolve 0.1 g in 10 ml of water, add 2 ml of sodium hydroxide (~80g/l)TS and shake. Filter the resulting precipitate and wash with two 3-ml quantities of water. Dry the washed precipitate for one hour at 105C. Using the dried precipitate thus obtained, carry out the examination as described under "1. 7 Spectrophotometry in the infrared region". The infrared absorption spectrum is concordant with the spectrum obtained from indinavir RS or with the reference spectrum of indinavir. D. A 20 mg/ml solution yields reaction A described under 2.1 General identification tests as characteristic of sulfates.

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Indinaviri sulfas - Indinavir sulfate


Specific optical rotation. Use a 10.0 mg/ml solution and calculate with reference to the anhydrous and ethanol free substance: +27 to +31. Heavy metals. Use 1.0 g for the preparation of the test solution as described under 2.2.3 Limit test for heavy metals, Procedure 1; determine the heavy metals content according to Method A; not more than 10 g/g. Sulfated ash. Not more than 1.0 mg/g. Water. Determine as described under 2.8 Determination of water by the Karl Fischer method, Method A, using 0.5 g of the substance; the water content is not more than 15 mg/g. pH value. pH of a 10 mg/ml solution in carbon-dioxide-free water R: 2.8-3.2.

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Indinaviri sulfas - Indinavir sulfate


Ethanol content. Determine by 1.14.5 Gas chromatography, using static head-space injection. Use a fused-silica capillary or wide bore column 30 m long and 0.32 mm or 0.53 mm in internal diameter coated with macrogol 20M R (film thickness: 0.25 m). As detector use a flame ionization detector. Use nitrogen for chromatography R or helium R as the carrier gas at an appropriate pressure and a split ratio 1:5 with a linear velocity of about 35 cm/sec.

Maintain the temperature of the column at 30C for 7 min, then raise the temperature at a rate of 35C per min to 180C and maintain for 10 min, maintaining the temperature of the injection port at 140C and that of the flame ionization detector at 250C.

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Indinaviri sulfas - Indinavir sulfate


Test solution. Dissolve 0.200 g of the test substance in purified water and dilute to 20.0 ml with the same solvent. Introduce 5.0 ml of this solution and 1.0 ml of purified water into a headspace vial. Prepare two more vials. Reference solutions. Add 0.200 g of ethanol R to purified water and dilute to 200.0 ml with the same solvent. Transfer respectively 2.0 ml, 3.0 ml and 4.0 ml in separate headspace injection vials and bring the volume to 6.0 ml with purified water. Blank solution. Introduce 6.0 ml of purified water into a headspace vial.

The test is not valid unless the relative standard deviation on the areas of the peaks obtained from the test solutions is not more than 5%.
Calculate the ethanol content by using the results obtained with the test solution and with the reference solutions; the ethanol content is not less than 50 mg/g and not more than 80 mg/g.

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Indinaviri sulfas - Indinavir sulfate


Related substances. Carry out the test as described under 1.14.4 High performance liquid chromatography, using a stainless steel column (25 cm x 4.6 mm) packed with base-deactivated octadecylsilyl silica gel for chromatography R (5m). Use the following conditions for gradient elution: Mobile phase A: 30 volumes of acetonitrile R, 5 volumes of phosphate buffer pH 7.5 and 65 volumes of purified water. Mobile phase B: 70 volumes of acetonitrile R, 5 volumes of phosphate buffer pH 7.5 and 25 volumes of purified water.

Prepare the following solutions. For solution (1) use 2.0 mg of the test substance per ml. For solution (2) dilute a suitable volume of solution (1) to obtain a concentration equivalent to 2 g of Indinavir sulfate per ml.
For the system suitability test: prepare solution (3) using 2 ml of solution (1) and 2 ml of sulfuric acid (190 g/l), heat carefully in a boiling water bath

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Indinaviri sulfas - Indinavir sulfate


Operate with a flow rate of 1.0 ml per minute. As a detector use an ultraviolet spectrophotometer set at a wavelength of 220 nm. Maintain the column temperature at 40C. Inject 20 l of solution (3). The test is not valid unless the resolution factor between the two major peaks, with a retention time between 15 and 20 min, is not less than 3.5. If necessary adjust the amount of acetonitrile in mobile phase A, or adjust the gradient program. Inject alternatively 20 l each of solutions (1) and (2). In the chromatograms obtained with solution (1), the area of any peak, other than the principal peak, is not greater than the area of the principal peak obtained with solution (2) (0.1 %). The sum of the areas of all peaks, other than the principal peak, is not greater than five times the area of the principal peak obtained with solution (2) (0.5 %). Disregard any peak with an area less than 0.5 times the area of the principal peak in the chromatogram obtained with solution (2) (0.05%).

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Indinaviri sulfas - Indinavir sulfate


Assay. Dissolve 0.300 g, accurately weighed, in 50 ml of water and titrate with sodium hydroxide (0.1 mol/l) VS, determine the end point potentiometrically. Each ml of sodium hydroxide (0.1 mol/l) VS is equivalent to 35.59 mg of C36H47N5O4,H2O4S; calculate with reference to the anhydrous and ethanol free substance

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Int. Ph. and links with other programmes and organizations


Monographs for antimalarials, anti-TB drugs (different clusters in WHO) General requirements for products derived from plant materials (WHO Traditional Medicines Programme) Monographs for radiopharmaceuticals (with International Atomic Energy Agency - IAEA) Monographs for excipients (with Pharmacopoeial Discussion Group - PDG)

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International Chemical Reference Substances (ICRS)


202 ICRS + 12 melting point reference substances Established by WHO COLLABORATING CENTRE FOR CHEMICAL REFERENCE SUBSTANCES in Sweden

Primary reference standard Linked to Ph.Int. Price for ICRS US$ 70 Includes: - Directions for use and - Certificate of analysis Monitoring and on-going stability testing Can be used for tests and analysis not included in Ph.Int.

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International Chemical Reference Substances (ICRS)

For ordering information, please visit http://www.apl.apoteket.se/who.

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International Infra-red Reference Spectra

WHO COLLABORATING CENTRE FOR CHEMICAL REFERENCE SUBSTANCES in Sweden 69 International Infrared Reference Spectra Linked to Ph.Int.
100,0
W1 0 52 3 2 T

90 80 70

Price for ICRS US$ 5


%T

60 Publication under review.. 50 40 30

IR-spectrum of lamivudine

20 10 0,0 4000,0 3600 3200 2800 2400 2000 1800 1600 cm-1 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400,0

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International Chemical Reference Substances Establishment of 4-ETC ICRS

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International Chemical Reference Substances 4- ETC CoA of Manufacturer

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International Chemical Reference Substances 4-ETC


Analysis by WHO Collaborating Centre Sweden
Intended use The stock of the current batch of the International Chemical Reference Substance (ICRS) for 4-epitetracycline hydrochloride Control No 293098 is depleted and has to be replaced. The monograph for Tetracycline hydrochloride in The International Pharmacopoeia, Fourth Edition, requires a reference substance of 4epitetracycline hydrochloride to be used in the thin-layer chromatographic test for related substances. Material About 15 g of the sample (manufacturers batch no 10) were received at the WHO Centre in September 2006. The material is being stored in tightly closed containers at + 5 C, protected from light.

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International Chemical Reference Substances 4-ETC


Infrared spectrum
100,0 90 80 70 60 50 %T 40 30 20 10 0,0 4000,0 3600 3200 2800 2400 2000 1800 1600 cm-1 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400,0
W306098

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International Chemical Reference Substances 4-ETC


UV-spectrum
A UV-spectrum in 10 mM hydrochloric acid was recorded

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International Chemical Reference Substances 4-ETC


Thin-layer chromatography
Two secondary spots were detected. They were identified as tetracycline hydrochloride and 4-epianhydrotetracycline hydrochloride and estimated to about 0.1% and 0.3%, respectively

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International Chemical Reference Substances 4-ETC


High performance liquid chromatography
The purity was estimated to 99.6% (w/w). Two impurities above the limit of quantification were detected. They were identified as tetracycline hydrochloride and 4epianhydrotetracycline hydrochloride and estimated with external standards to 0.1% and 0.3% (w/w), respectively (n=6, RSD=0.01% for the main peak, RSD=9.5% for tetracycline, RSD=3.6% for 4-epianhydrotetracycline.

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International Chemical Reference Substances 4-ETC

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International Chemical Reference Substances 4-ETC


Stability
No special stability studies have been performed. Regular re-examinations of this ICRS when stored in the dry state will be performed. Conclusion

4-Epitetracycline hydrochloride, Control No 306098, can be considered suitable as International Chemical Reference Substance for the intended purpose.

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What needs to be kept in mind!!

1. Quality cannot be tested into the product!

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What needs to be kept in mind!!

2. Specifications in national and regional pharmacopoeias are: - based on manufacturers' specifications


- specific for the product(s) marketed in its legislative territory

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What needs to be kept in mind!!

3. Specifications should be used in a comprehensive way, i.e. including all tests listed

4. Specifications should be used intelligently, there is no guarantee that all (possible and impossible) impurities and alterations are covered!

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The International Pharmacopoeia's advantages


1. Specifications validated internationally, through an independent scientific process 2. Input from WHO Collaborating Centres, national Drug Quality Control laboratories

3. Collaboration with manufacturers around the world, especially for new projects
4. Close collaboration with WHO Member States, Drug Regulatory Authorities

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Further questions ?????? http:www.who.int/medicines

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