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Test Input Signals
For the purposes of Analysis and Design, it is customary to consider the
effect of certain standard inputs, which subject the system to sudden
changes

The Most Commonly Used Test Input Signals

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Concept of Poles and Zeros

Poles of Transfer Function
Those values of Laplace Variable, s, that cause the transfer function to
become infinite

Zeros of Transfer Function
Those values of Laplace Variable, s, that cause the transfer function to
become zero

Example: Determine the poles and zeros of the following transfer function

2
2
5 6
( )
( 1)( 13 42)
s s
T s
s s s
+ +
=
+ + +
2
2
5 6 ( 2)( 3)
( )
( 1)( 13 42) ( 1)( 6)( 7)
s s s s
T s
s s s s s s
+ + + +
= =
+ + + + + +
Answer:
Zeros: s = -2, -3
Poles: s = -1, -6, -7
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Roles of Poles and Zeros
Example: Given the following block diagram with a step input:
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• The Input Pole generates the form of Forced Response
• A pole of the transfer function generates the form of Natural Response,
i.e. the exponential response. The further to the left a pole is on the
negative real axis, the faster the exponential will decay to zero
• A zero helps generate the amplitude for both the steady state and
transient response
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First Order System Response and Specification
| |
1 0
b b
y
a a
·
= ÷ =
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Change the numerator to 40, such that T(s) = 40/(s+50)
• It will not change the settling time, time constant, rise time
• It will only affect the steady state value, and hence steady state error
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A Closed Loop First Order System: An Example
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Error can be controlled
through gain K
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Example
Could we use the same equations used for the Open Loop First Order System?
YES. Once you simplify the T(s) of the Closed Loop to a form T(s) = b/(s+a), then
you may use the same equations involving a and b
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Second Order System
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Based on the system poles which determine the Natural Response of the
system:
• Overdamped Response
• Underdamped Response
• Oscillatory Response
• Critically Response

Overdamped Response

Poles: Two REAL at s = –σ1 and –σ2



Transient Response: Two Exponentials with time constants equal to the
reciprocal of the pole locations


Example:

With a Unit step input (1/s) the response is:


Poles = s = -1.146 and -7.854

1 2
1 2
( )
t t
y t K e K e
o o ÷ ÷
= +
2
9 9
( ) ( ) ( )
9 9 ( 1.146)( 7.854)
Y s R s R s
s s s s
= =
+ + + +
7.854 1.146
( ) 1 0.171 1.171
t t
y t e e
÷ ÷
= + ÷
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Underdamped Response

Poles: Two COMPLEX at s = –σd ± j ωd







Transient Response: Damped Sinusoid with an exponential envelope whose
time constant is equal to the reciprocal of the poles’
real part.
( ) ( )
1 2 3
1
3
2
( ) cos cos sin
: tan
d d
t t
d d d
y t K e t e K t K t
K
where
K
o o
e | e e
|
÷ ÷
÷
= ÷ = +
=
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Example:


With a Unit step input (1/s) the response is:


Poles = s = -1.5 ± j 2.59

2
9 9
( ) ( ) ( )
3 9 ( 1.5 2.59)( 1.5 2.59)
Y s R s R s
s s s j s j
= =
+ + + + + ÷
( )
1.5
( ) 1 1.55 cos 2.558 30
t o
y t e t
÷
= ÷ ÷
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Oscillatory Response

Poles: Two IMAGINARY at s = ± jω1



Transient Response: Undamped Sinusoid with Radian frequency equal to
the imaginary part of the poles


Example:

With a Unit step input (1/s) the response is:


Poles = s = ± j3

2
9 9
( ) ( ) ( )
9 ( 3)( 3)
Y s R s R s
s s j s j
= =
+ + ÷
( )
( ) 1 cos 3 y t t = ÷
( )
1 1
( ) cos y t K t e | = ÷
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Critically Damped Response

Poles: Equal and REAL at s = –σ1



Transient Response: One term is an Exponential whose time constant is
equal to the reciprocal of the Pole Location. Another
is the product of time t and the same exponential term.


Example:

With a Unit step input (1/s) the response is:


Poles = s = –3

2 2
9 9
( ) ( ) ( )
6 9 ( 3)
Y s R s R s
s s s
= =
+ + +
3 3
( ) 1 3
t t
y t te e
÷ ÷
= ÷ ÷
1 1
1 2
( )
t t
y t K e K te
o o ÷ ÷
= +
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2
nd
Order System: Underdamped Response Specifications
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2. Percent Overshoot: The Amount that the waveform overshoots the steady
state, or final value at the Peak Time, expressed as
percentage of the steady state value
3. Settling Time: The Amount of time required for the transient’s Damped
Oscillations to stay within ±2% of the steady state
4. Rise Time: The time required for the waveform to go from 10% to 90% of
its Final Value
Example:
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What if the damping ratio is not within the specified range to find the Rise Time?
From the Text Book, page 232
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The effect of varying Natural Frequency given a damping ratio
The response is faster as the natural frequency increases. However, the
Percent Overshoot remains the same, since:
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The effect of varying Damping Ratio given a Natural Frequency
As Damping Ratio increases:
• Response becomes less oscillatory
• The Peak Time Increases
• Percent Overshoot Decreases
• Rise Time Increases
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ESTIMATION OF DAMPING RATIO GIVEN y(t) with STEP INPUT

If we know y(t) of a system, say from a step input, after applying a step input then
the damping ratio may be estimated as follows:
1. Find a Point on y(t) where the value settles within 2% of the final value
2. Count how many cycles from y(t) = 0 to the point obtained in 1 = # cycles
3. Damping Ratio = 0.55 / (# cycles)