Cal Poly State University, San Luis Obispo 121
Test Input Signals
For the purposes of Analysis and Design, it is customary to consider the
effect of certain standard inputs, which subject the system to sudden
changes
The Most Commonly Used Test Input Signals
1st Revision 2007 ©Taufik
Cal Poly State University, San Luis Obispo 122
Concept of Poles and Zeros
Poles of Transfer Function
Those values of Laplace Variable, s, that cause the transfer function to
become infinite
Zeros of Transfer Function
Those values of Laplace Variable, s, that cause the transfer function to
become zero
Example: Determine the poles and zeros of the following transfer function
2
2
5 6
( )
( 1)( 13 42)
s s
T s
s s s
+ +
=
+ + +
2
2
5 6 ( 2)( 3)
( )
( 1)( 13 42) ( 1)( 6)( 7)
s s s s
T s
s s s s s s
+ + + +
= =
+ + + + + +
Answer:
Zeros: s = 2, 3
Poles: s = 1, 6, 7
1st Revision 2007 ©Taufik
Cal Poly State University, San Luis Obispo 123
Roles of Poles and Zeros
Example: Given the following block diagram with a step input:
1st Revision 2007 ©Taufik
Cal Poly State University, San Luis Obispo 124
• The Input Pole generates the form of Forced Response
• A pole of the transfer function generates the form of Natural Response,
i.e. the exponential response. The further to the left a pole is on the
negative real axis, the faster the exponential will decay to zero
• A zero helps generate the amplitude for both the steady state and
transient response
1st Revision 2007 ©Taufik
Cal Poly State University, San Luis Obispo 125
First Order System Response and Specification
 
1 0
b b
y
a a
·
= ÷ =
1st Revision 2007 ©Taufik
Cal Poly State University, San Luis Obispo 126
1st Revision 2007 ©Taufik
Cal Poly State University, San Luis Obispo 127
1st Revision 2007 ©Taufik
Cal Poly State University, San Luis Obispo 128
1st Revision 2007 ©Taufik
Cal Poly State University, San Luis Obispo 129
Change the numerator to 40, such that T(s) = 40/(s+50)
• It will not change the settling time, time constant, rise time
• It will only affect the steady state value, and hence steady state error
1st Revision 2007 ©Taufik
Cal Poly State University, San Luis Obispo 130
A Closed Loop First Order System: An Example
1st Revision 2007 ©Taufik
Cal Poly State University, San Luis Obispo 131
Error can be controlled
through gain K
1st Revision 2007 ©Taufik
Cal Poly State University, San Luis Obispo 132
Example
Could we use the same equations used for the Open Loop First Order System?
YES. Once you simplify the T(s) of the Closed Loop to a form T(s) = b/(s+a), then
you may use the same equations involving a and b
1st Revision 2007 ©Taufik
Cal Poly State University, San Luis Obispo 133
1st Revision 2007 ©Taufik
Cal Poly State University, San Luis Obispo 134
Second Order System
1st Revision 2007 ©Taufik
Cal Poly State University, San Luis Obispo 135
Based on the system poles which determine the Natural Response of the
system:
• Overdamped Response
• Underdamped Response
• Oscillatory Response
• Critically Response
Overdamped Response
Poles: Two REAL at s = –σ1 and –σ2
Transient Response: Two Exponentials with time constants equal to the
reciprocal of the pole locations
Example:
With a Unit step input (1/s) the response is:
Poles = s = 1.146 and 7.854
1 2
1 2
( )
t t
y t K e K e
o o ÷ ÷
= +
2
9 9
( ) ( ) ( )
9 9 ( 1.146)( 7.854)
Y s R s R s
s s s s
= =
+ + + +
7.854 1.146
( ) 1 0.171 1.171
t t
y t e e
÷ ÷
= + ÷
1st Revision 2007 ©Taufik
Cal Poly State University, San Luis Obispo 136
Underdamped Response
Poles: Two COMPLEX at s = –σd ± j ωd
Transient Response: Damped Sinusoid with an exponential envelope whose
time constant is equal to the reciprocal of the poles’
real part.
( ) ( )
1 2 3
1
3
2
( ) cos cos sin
: tan
d d
t t
d d d
y t K e t e K t K t
K
where
K
o o
e  e e

÷ ÷
÷
= ÷ = +
=
1st Revision 2007 ©Taufik
Cal Poly State University, San Luis Obispo 137
Example:
With a Unit step input (1/s) the response is:
Poles = s = 1.5 ± j 2.59
2
9 9
( ) ( ) ( )
3 9 ( 1.5 2.59)( 1.5 2.59)
Y s R s R s
s s s j s j
= =
+ + + + + ÷
( )
1.5
( ) 1 1.55 cos 2.558 30
t o
y t e t
÷
= ÷ ÷
1st Revision 2007 ©Taufik
Cal Poly State University, San Luis Obispo 138
Oscillatory Response
Poles: Two IMAGINARY at s = ± jω1
Transient Response: Undamped Sinusoid with Radian frequency equal to
the imaginary part of the poles
Example:
With a Unit step input (1/s) the response is:
Poles = s = ± j3
2
9 9
( ) ( ) ( )
9 ( 3)( 3)
Y s R s R s
s s j s j
= =
+ + ÷
( )
( ) 1 cos 3 y t t = ÷
( )
1 1
( ) cos y t K t e  = ÷
1st Revision 2007 ©Taufik
Cal Poly State University, San Luis Obispo 139
Critically Damped Response
Poles: Equal and REAL at s = –σ1
Transient Response: One term is an Exponential whose time constant is
equal to the reciprocal of the Pole Location. Another
is the product of time t and the same exponential term.
Example:
With a Unit step input (1/s) the response is:
Poles = s = –3
2 2
9 9
( ) ( ) ( )
6 9 ( 3)
Y s R s R s
s s s
= =
+ + +
3 3
( ) 1 3
t t
y t te e
÷ ÷
= ÷ ÷
1 1
1 2
( )
t t
y t K e K te
o o ÷ ÷
= +
1st Revision 2007 ©Taufik
Cal Poly State University, San Luis Obispo 140
2
nd
Order System: Underdamped Response Specifications
1st Revision 2007 ©Taufik
Cal Poly State University, San Luis Obispo 141
2. Percent Overshoot: The Amount that the waveform overshoots the steady
state, or final value at the Peak Time, expressed as
percentage of the steady state value
3. Settling Time: The Amount of time required for the transient’s Damped
Oscillations to stay within ±2% of the steady state
4. Rise Time: The time required for the waveform to go from 10% to 90% of
its Final Value
Example:
1st Revision 2007 ©Taufik
Cal Poly State University, San Luis Obispo 142
What if the damping ratio is not within the specified range to find the Rise Time?
From the Text Book, page 232
1st Revision 2007 ©Taufik
Cal Poly State University, San Luis Obispo 143
The effect of varying Natural Frequency given a damping ratio
The response is faster as the natural frequency increases. However, the
Percent Overshoot remains the same, since:
1st Revision 2007 ©Taufik
Cal Poly State University, San Luis Obispo 144
The effect of varying Damping Ratio given a Natural Frequency
As Damping Ratio increases:
• Response becomes less oscillatory
• The Peak Time Increases
• Percent Overshoot Decreases
• Rise Time Increases
1st Revision 2007 ©Taufik
Cal Poly State University, San Luis Obispo 145
ESTIMATION OF DAMPING RATIO GIVEN y(t) with STEP INPUT
If we know y(t) of a system, say from a step input, after applying a step input then
the damping ratio may be estimated as follows:
1. Find a Point on y(t) where the value settles within 2% of the final value
2. Count how many cycles from y(t) = 0 to the point obtained in 1 = # cycles
3. Damping Ratio = 0.55 / (# cycles)