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# Dynamics of Capillary Surfaces

Lucero Carmona
Professor John Pelesko and Anson Carter Department of Mathematics University of Delaware

Explanation

When a rigid container is inserted into a fluid the fluid will rise in the container to a height higher than the surrounding li!uid

"u#e

Wedge

\$ponge

Goals Map mathematically how high the li!uid rises with respect to time  %&periment with capillary surfaces to see if theory is in agreement with data  'f the preparation of the tu#e effects how high the li!uid will rise  .

Initial Set-up and Free Body Diagram List of Variables: volume ( g ( gravity r ( radius of capillary tu#e ) ( e&tent of rise of the surface of the li!uid measured to the #ottom of the meniscus at time t * + ( density of the surface of the li!uid . ( surface tension ( the angle that the a&is of the tu#e makes with the hori-ontal of the sta#le immo#ile pool of fluid ( contact angle #etween the surface of the li!uid and the wall of the tu#e .

orce   Poiseulle 0iscous .orce /ravitational .orce .Explanation of the Forces  \$urface "ension .

%ffect Drag 1ewton2s \$econd Law of Motion .Explanation of the Forces  %nd.

orce 1et .orce .orce 4 /ravitational . \$urface "ension .orce ( \$urface "ension .orce .rom our free #ody diagram and #y 1ewton2s \$econd Law of Motion3 1et . %nd.%ffect Drag 4 Poiseuitte 0iscous . /ravitational .orce ( + After \$u##ing #ack in our terms we get3 5y Dividing everything #y we get our differential e!uation3 where )o ( )6+7 ( + .Explanation of Differential Equation .%ffect Drag .orce 4 %nd.orce . Poiseuitte 0iscous .

Steady State  5y setting the time derivatives to -ero in the differential e!uation and solving for ) we are a#le to determine to steady state of the rise .

wetting the "u#e and aligning the camera .Up  %&periments were performed using silicon oil and water  \$everal preparations were used on the set.tampered tu#e 8Disinfecting the "u#e and aligning the camera 8 Pre.Set .tampered tu#e 8 %&tending the run time and aligning the camera 8 Aligning the camera and using an non.up to see if altered techni!ues would produce different results  "he preparations included3 8 Using a non.

of a second passed #etween each frame9 .Up  "he e&periments were recorded with the high speed camera9  "he movies were recorded with :.+ fps for \$ilicon <il and =+++ fps for water9  \$tills were e&tracted from the videos and used to process in MatLa#9  = frame out of every =++ were e&tracted from the \$ilicon <il e&periments so that +9> of a second passed #etween each frame9  = frame out of every :.Set . were e&tracted from the Water e&periments so that +9+:.

Up  MatLa# was then used to measure the rise of the li!uid in pi&els  %&cel and a C.Set .program were used to convert the pi&el distances into MM and to print out !uick alterations to the data ) .

Capillary u!es "ith Silicon #il Silicon Oil Data: Steady State Solution Initial Velocity Eigenvalues .

Capillary u!e "ith \$ater Water Data: Steady State Solution Initial Velocity Eigenvalues .

Water Rising at Angle Data: Steady State Solution Initial Velocity Eigenvalues .%re&ious Experimental Data 'Britten ()*+.

-esults     "here is still something missing from the theory that prevents the e&perimental data to #e more accurate "he steady ? state is not in agreement with the theory "here is !ualitative agreement #ut not !uantitative agreement %liminated contamination .

Explanation of \$edges  When a capillary wedge is inserted into a fluid the fluid will rise in the wedge to a height higher than the surrounding li!uid Goals Map mathematically how high the li!uid rises with respect to time .

Up  %&periments were performed using silicon oil "wo runs were performed with different angles  %&periments were recorded with the high speed camera at :.+ fps and @+ fps .\$edge Set .

Up  .or first e&periment one still out of every =++ were e&tracted so that +9> sec passed #etween each slide  .\$edge Set .or second e&periment one still out of every .+ were e&tracted so that +9AB sec passed #etween each slide  MatLa# was then used to measure the rise of the li!uid in pi&els  %&cel and a C.program were used to convert the pi&el distances into MM and to print out !uick alterations to the data ) .

\$edge Data .

Explanation of Sponges  Capillary action can #e seen in porous sponges see if porous sponges relate to the capillary tu#e theory #y calculating what the mean radius would #e for the pores Goals "o .

Sponge Set .Up  %&periments were performed using water "hree runs were preformed with varying lengths  %&periments were recorded with the high speed camera at :.+ fps and @+ fps .

program were used to convert the pi&el distances into MM and to print out !uick alterations to the data ) .or first and second e&periments one still out of every =++ were e&tracted so that +9> sec passed #etween each slide  .+ were e&tracted so that +9AB sec passed #etween each slide  MatLa# was then used to measure the rise of the li!uid in pi&els  %&cel and a C.or third e&periment one still out of every .Sponge Set .Up  .

Sponge Data "he effects of widths and swelling .

Future \$or.     Cefining e&periments to prevent undesira#le influences Constructing a theory for wedges and sponges Producing agreement #etween theory and e&perimentation for the capillary tu#es Allowing for sponges to soak overnight with o#servation .

redricks .79 Dynamics of li!uid in a circular capillary9 The Science of Soap Films and Soap Bubbles #y C9 'sen#erg Dover 6=DD:79 C9 0on Mises and E9 <9 .-eferences    Liquid Rise in a Capillary Tube #y W9 5ritten 6=D>.luid Dynamics 65rown University Providence Chode 'sland =D>=7 pp =BF.=>+9 Further Information  http3GGcapillaryteam9p#wiki9comGhere .

velocity in ). velocity in r . velocity in H.Explanation of the Forces  Poiseulle 0iscous .dir \$he shearing stress%&% will be 'ro'ortional to the rate of change of velocity across the surface( Due to the variation of u in the r#direction% where ) is the viscosity coefficient: Since we are dealing with cylindrical coordinates *ro! the +roduct Rule we can say that: Solving for u: .orce3 Since we are only considering the li uid !ove!ent in the "#dir: u ( u6r7 v(w(+ 6u v w7 u .dir v .dir w .

orce3 'f then3 .Explanation of the Forces  Poiseulle 0iscous .rom this we can solve for c3 \$u# #ack into the e!uation for u3 \$u# #ack into the original e!uation for u3 Average 0elocity3 \$o then for 3 .

orce3 %!uation u in terms of Average 0elocity .urther Anaylsis on shearing stress I3 for "he drag D per unit #readth e&erted on the wall of the tu#e for a segment l can #e found as3 .Explanation of the Forces  Poiseulle 0iscous .