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Survey of Psychoactive Drugs

Psychoactive drugs affect brain function, mood, state of mind, and behavior

Basic terms to know
 Physical dependence – cannot stop without withdrawal symptoms
 Psychological dependence – mental or emotional need for drug  Tolerance – requires increasing dosages for desired effect  Cross-Tolerance – reduced response to similar drugs

leading to greater combined effect  Antagonism – One drug weakens/ counteracts another.Basic terms to know  Synergism – One drug enhances power/ effect of another. leading to lesser combined effect .

Narcotic Analgesics  Opiates: from opium poppy  In use for thousands of year  Effective pain relievers  Heroin is commonly abused  Highly addictive .

with 18th Amendment (Repealed by 21st Amendment)  Adverse effects  Fetal Alcohol Syndrome .S.CNS Depressants: Alcohol  Common intoxicant  Alcohol culture of Europe’s past  1917-1932: Prohibition in U.

Other CNS Depressants  Barbiturates  Methaqualone. quaaludes  Minor & Major Tranquilizers  Sedating Antihistamines .

CNS Stimulants  Amphetamines: once widely prescribed by physicians  Methamphetamine (speed)made in Meth Labs – smoked  Abrupt cessation causes physical & emotional symptoms .

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CNS Stimulants  Caffeine & nicotine widely used  Cocaine: S American coca bush     Free-basing Crack Short acting. highly addictive Use is increasing at colleges .

tune in. drop out.” .Hallucinogens: Some terms  Psychedelic– alters consciousness  Psychotomimetic– mimics psychosis  Timothy Leary: “Turn on.

Hallucinogens  Natural substances used in religious practice for centuries  LSD discovered in 1943  Harvard. 1960s: Leary & Alpert  Experiments with psychotics  Street use .

Amanita mushroom: Soma .

Salvia divinorum: Purple & Red .

diviner’s sage)  Healing & divination. intense hallucinogen  Feelings of de-personalization .Oaxaca Mexico spiritual practices  Dried leaves are smoked  Active ingredient: salvinorin A  Short-acting.Salvia (magic mint.

Bwiti men smoke ibogaine to “visit the ancestors” .

Want to Lick a Toad? .

intimacy.Ecstasy: MDMA  Part amphetamine. part hallucinogen  Party drug: Raves  “Hug drug”: may enhance communication. & pleasure of touch/ sex  Dangers .

Cannabis sativa leaf .

Marijuana: Cannabis  Active ingredient: THC  Most widely used illicit drug  The legalization debate  Medical uses  Newer concentrations of THC .

CU Data on Marijuana Use (%) Frequency/ Year: 1998 2000 2005 1-6 times/ year 9 17 16 1-4 times/ month 3+ times/ week Total used 9 11 29 8 9 34 10 8 34 .

Comparative Data: % Prevalence Use: Substance Tobacco Lifetime CU 41 Comp Annual CU 34 Comp 30-Day CU 24 Comp 59 45 35 Alcohol Marijuana Cocaine Amphetamines Sedatives 86 43 5 8 4 88 46 9 17 6 84 34 3 5 3 83 32 4 7 3 75 20 1 3 1 69 19 2 3 1 Hallucinogens 7 14 5 7 2 3 .

Athletes and Drugs  Performance enhancement  Caffeine and nicotine  Amphetamines  Anabolic steroids  Potential adverse physical & psychological effects .