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is the difference? A.Criterion-related validity B.Construct Validity C.Content Validity D.Face Validity What are the factors that influence test validity and reliability


is the degree to which the test actually measures what it purpots to measure. It provides a direct check oh how well the test fulfills its functions Example: The PUPCET is check with external criteria like rating of teachers, success or failure, grades or training.


test show consistent scores but it is not useful then it is not valid or if it is not consistent in whatever it is measuring then it cannot be valid for any purpose.

CONTENT VALIDITY The extent to which the content of test provides an adequate representative of the conceptual domain it is designed to cover, test of achievement and ability are of this type of examples It is extablished through logical analysis. There is a careful and critical examination of the test items based on the objectives of instruction.

CRITERION RELATED VALIDITY Is established statistically through correlation between the set of scores revealed by a test and some other predictor or data collected by other test or external measured Evidence tells us just how a test corresponds with particular criterion. Such evidence is provided by high correlations between a test and well defined criterion measures


Validity Evidence tells us the forecasting functions of test. The criterion evidence are obtained in the future generally months or years after the test scores are known Example: SAT serves as predictive evidence as college admission test it is forecast how wel high school students do well in their academic performance

B.Concurrent-related evidence Comes from assessments of simulateous relationship between the test and school performance;in industrial setting job samples to correlate with performance in the job. Appropriate for licensure examination, achievement test and diagnostic test.

CONSTRUCT VALIDITY Is determined by analyzing the psychological qualities traits, or factors measured by a test Psychological constructs include Intelligence, Mechanical ability, Perceptual ability and critical thinking. Construct is defined by showing relationship between test

D.T. Campbell and Fiske (Kaplan, 2001) Introduced an important set of logical considerations for constructing evidence of construct validity A.Convergent Evidence-when a measure correlate well with other test believe to measure the same construct. B.Discriminant Evidence-indicates that the measure does not represent other than the one for which it was devised


VALIDITY Is the extent to which items on test appear to be meaningful and relevant. It is merely the appearance that a measure has validity


Appropriateness of test items B.Direction C.Reading vocabulary and sentence structures D. Difficulty of items E.Construction of test items-no ambiguous items or leading items G. Length of the test-Sufficient length H. Arrangement of items-no patterns T-T;FF; or A-B,A-B;C-d,C-D and so on.


refers to consistency of scores by the same person when reexamined with the same test on different occasions


Inconsistency Scoring should be objective by providing a scoring key so that correctors biases donot effect examinees scores Limited sampling of behavior This happens with too much accidental inclusion of certain items and the inclusion of other. Instability of examinees performance Fatigue practice, and examinees mood are among the factors that may affect performance.

A. Measures of stability-often called test-retest estimate or reliability and is obtained by administering a test to a group of individuals, re-administering the same test to the same individual at a later date, and correlating the two sets of scores. The correlation must be high, .80 is a min figure. To be trustworthy two testing administrations should be separated by a least a three months gap subjects should be large


Measures of Equivalence The equivalent forms of reliability is obtained by giving two forms (with equal content, means, and variance) of a test to the same group of individuals on the same day and correlate the results. We can generalize a persons score as to what to receive taking similar test but different questions.

Measures of Equivalence and Stability Could he obtained by giving one form of the test and after a period of time, administering the other form and correlate the results. This procedure allows for both changes in scores due to trait instability and changes in scores due to item specifity. Measures of Internal Consistency To be reliable internal consistency must be high, coefficient alpha is bet index of internal consistency a simple approximation to alpha is the split half reliabilty


half Is a method of estimating reliability that is theoretically the same as the equivalent forms method. It is ordinarily considered as a measure of internal consistency because the two equivalent forms are contained within a single test. One test is administered in estimating reliability, one obtains a sub-score for each of the two halves and two subscores are correlated using Speaman-Brown prophecy formula


of test of the test




administration, scoring, and interpretation of scores are objective insofar as they are independent of the subjective judgement of the particular examiner Objectivity of the examiner can be achieved if a qualified test examiner who is competent and responsible handles the test. Major way of objective test is administration of difficulty level of an item or of a whole test based on objective, empirical procedues employed by test developer.

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