THE INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM

Integumentary System Functions
Protection (chemical, physical, and biological barriers)  Prevents loss of water  Temperature regulation  Metabolic regulation  Immune defense  Sensory receptors  Excretion by means of secretion

Regions of the Skin

Epidermis Dermis Hypodermis
 NOT

the integumentary system

a part of

Epidermis
The epidermis is what type of tissue?? Keratinized stratified squamous epithelium Thick skin has five Thin skin has four layers layers
Stratum corneum

Stratum lucidum Stratum granulosum Stratum spinosum Stratum

Layers of the Epidermis
  

Stratum corneum Stratum lucidum (only in thick skin) Stratum granulosum
 

Keratinization Cells still alive Epidermal dendritic cells Melanocytes Tactile Cells

 

Stratum spinosum

Stratum basale (germinativum)
 

Keratinocytes found in all layers

Cells of the Epidermis

Keratinocytes

produce keratin, most abundant

Melanocytes

produce melanin

Epidermal Dendritic Cells (Langerhans Cells)

macrophages in the immune response

The epidermis is made of ___ epithelium.
1. 2. 3. 4.

Simple Squamous Transitional Stratified Squamous Pseudostratified Squamous
19

Skin Color

Hemoglobin – in blood; causes pink hue in Caucasian skin Melanin – produced by melanocytes
 UV

exposure darkens existing melanin and stimulates melanocytes

Jaundice – caused by elevated levels of bilirubin in the body

Carotene – found in plants; yellow to orange pigment

Quick Question
The epidermis is epithelial tissue so what MUST lie directly beneath?? Connective Tissue

Dermis

2 layers:
 Papillary

(areolar)  Reticular (dense irregular)

Epidermal Ridges and dermal papillae

Hypodermis (subcutaneous)
Areolar and adipose connective tissue  Anchors skin to underlying structures  Allows skin to slide freely  Larger in women than men

Nails
Scale like modification of epidermis  Contain hard keratin  Grows from the nail matrix

Hair
Three types of hair:

Lanugo

fine downy hair on fetuses hair on head, pubic region, and men’s facial hair hair on arms and legs fine hair

Terminal

Vellus
 

Hair
Consists of root and shaft  Layers of the hair:

 Medulla

– central core not found in all hair  Cortex – surrounds medulla  Cuticle –

Location and Functions
Hair can be found EVERYWHERE, except for on the palms, soles, lips, sides of fingers and toes, and parts of the external genitalia  Functions:

 protects

from the sun  senses touch  reduces heat loss

Hair Growth
Rate of hair growth is about 2 mm/week  Growth cycles – active (2-5 years) and dormant phases (3-4 months)  Why are eyebrows

Male Pattern Baldness

Genetic and hormonal influences
 Genetic:

2 alleles, one for uniform hair growth and one for baldness

Baldness gene is dominant in males

 Hormonal:

Testosterone causes terminal hair to be replaced by vellus hair

Exocrine Glands

Sebaceous

Sebaceous (oil) glands
 Occur

over entire body, except palms and soles  Produce sebum as lubricant

Merocrine

Sudoriferous (sweat) glands
 Merocrine

glands – most numerous, sweat or sensible perspiration  Apocrine glands – confined to axillary, nipple, anal and genital areas; viscous sweat

Apocrine

What type of gland secretes oil to lubricate the skin?
1. 2. 3. 4.

Sudoriferous Merocrine Apocrine Sebacceous

1 8

Burns

First-degree – damages epidermis

Second-degree – damages epidermis and part of the dermis

Third-degree – damages entire dermis

Types of Skin Cancer

Basal cell carcinoma

Squamous cell carcinoma

Refer to Table 5.4 for more information

Malignant Melanoma

Objectives for Next Lecture
Describe the general structures and functions of bone  Identify the classifications of bones  Understand the two types of bone formation  Describe some disorders of the skeletal system