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Chandrayaan-1

Objectives: 1. To expand scientific knowledge about the moon 2. To upgrade India's technological capability 3. To provide challenging opportunities for planetary research to the younger generation of Indian scientists Mission: To place an unmanned spacecraft in an orbit around the moon To conduct mineralogical and chemical mapping of the lunar surface Chandrayaan-1 aims to achieve these well defined objectives through high resolution remote sensing of the moon in the visible, near infrared, microwave and X-ray regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. With this, preparation of a 3-dimensional atlas of the lunar surface and chemical mapping of entire lunar surface is envisaged

MOON
Earth distance 384,000 km Period 27.3 days and takes the same time to spin around its own axis. Thus, one hemisphere of the moon ('the far-side') is not visible No atmosphere. Thus, liquid water cannot exist on the moon. Results from the recent unmanned spacecraft missions have raised the possibility of what appears to be the presence of water ice in the lunar polar regions

Parameter Diameter Mass Volume Density Surface Gravity

Earth 12,742 km 5.9x1024 kg

Moon 3,474 km 7.475x1022 kg

1.08 3206x1021 m3 2.199X1019 m3 5.52 g/cm3 1g 3.34 g/cm3 0.166 g

Chronology
Oct 22 06:22 Launch 25522,860 km T 6.5 hrs Oct 23 09:00 LAM 18 min 30537,900 km T 11 hrs Oct 25 05:48 LAM 16 min 36674,715 km T 25.5 hrs Oct 26 07:08 LAM 9.5 min 348164,600 km T 73 hrs

Oct 29 07:38 LAM 3 min 465267,000 km T 6 days


Oct 31 08:00 Terrain Mapping Camera ON (9000 km)

Nov 04 04:56 LAM 2.5 min 465380,000 km T 11 days


Nov 08 16:51 LAM 817 sec 5047502 km T 11 hrs

Nov 09 20:03 LAM 57 sec 2007502 T 10.5 hrs


Nov 10-11-12 LAM 18 min 182/100255/100 T 2 hrs

11 Payloads 5 Indian
Terrain Mapping Camera (TMC) topography of the moon. Hyperspectral Imager (HySI) mineralogical composition of Moons surface & interior. Lunar Laser Ranging Instrument (LLRI) height of lunar surface features. High Energy X-ray Spectrometer (HEX) Polar Regions water-ice deposits and regions of high Uranium and Thorium concentrations. Moon Impact Probe (MIP) technologies related to future soft landing missions.

1380 kg 1.5 m cuboid 700 W

Chandrayaan-1 Imaging X ray Spectrometer (C1XS), Smart Near Infrared Spectrometer (SIR-2) & Sub kiloelectronvolt Atom Reflecting Analyser (SAR) of ESA. Radiation Dose Monitor (RADOM) of Bulgaria. Mini Synthetic Aperture Radar (MiniSAR) & Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) of USA

Chandrayaan-1 Pre-launch Checks

PSLV C 11

PSLV C 11

Terrain Mapping Camera (TMC) Operated on Oct 31


08:00 9000 km Northern coast of Australia

12:30 70000 km Southern coast of Australia

MOON MISSIONS
Sept 1959: First successful hard landing on the moon by Luna 2 of the USSR

July 20, 1969: Neil Armstrong, commander of the US mission Apollo 11, becomes the first man to walk on moon
Nov 1970: The first robotic rover Lunokhod-1 part of the Luna 17 mission of the USSR makes a successful moon landing Jan 1990: Japans Hiten orbits the moon, making it the third country after USSR and the US to do so. Sept 2003: European Space Agency launches a small low-cost lunar orbiter SMART-1

MOON MISSIONS
Dec 1968: Apollo 8 of the US becomes the first spacecraft carrying humans to orbit the moon

Aug 1976: Luna 24 of the USSR returns to earth, making it the last major lunar mission till 1990
2007: Japan launches its lunar orbiter, Selene for mapping of lunar topography and to study the geological evolution of the moon 2007: The first phase of Chinas Lunar Exploration Programme initiated with the launch of its unmanned lunar mission, Change 1