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Scour and scour protection

Krystian W. Pilarczyk
Rijkswaterstaat
Road and Hydraulic Engineering Division,
Delft, the Netherlands
Types of scour
Currents
Jets
Waves
Types of scour
a) S2 = S1 > 0. This is a dynamic equilibrium situation.
Sediment can be picked up and can settle again, but there is
no net change of the position of the bottom.
b) S2 > S1 = 0. There is no sediment supply from upstream,
while there is sediment transport downstream. This case is
known as clear-water scour. (u
o1
< u
c
)


c) S2 > S1 > 0. There is sediment supply from upstream but the
sediment transport downstream is larger. This case is known
as live-bed scour. (u
o1
> u
c
)
S f S f
c
= ÷ = ( ) ( ) ¢ ¢ ¢ or
Types of scour
Or, S = f(u – u
c
)
Flow deflectors
Increase footing depth
Examples scour damage
Literature
See also selected literature in lectures by Pilarczyk
General aspects
and components
Hydraulic boundary
conditions
-flow pattern
- soil conditions
scour behind bed protection
( )
4 . 0
7 . 0
2 . 0
0
7 . 1
10
) ( t
h u u
t h
c
s
A
÷
=
o
h
s
(t) maximum scour depth
h
0
original water depth
u vertically averaged velocity at end of protection
u
c
critical velocity
t time in hours
o scour intensity parameter
Bank sliding Zeeland
Probably due to flow slide
schematic view of a flow-slide
Control definitions of
scour depth?
Sometimes = scour depth
Sometimes = scour depth
plus water depth
Scour Manual, 1997
Hoffmans&Verheij
Scour in bends
River, Coastal and Shoreline Protection: Erosion
Control Using Riprap and Armourstone
C. R. Thorne (Editor), Steven R. Abt (Editor), Frans B. J. Barends
(Editor), Stephen T. Maynord (Editor), Krystian W. Pilarczyk (Editor)
Hardcover , 784 pages , April 1995



Velocity prediction in bends – empirical method
Vtoe/Vavg= 1.66 – 0.42 log (Rc/w)
(Rc/w)= the radius of river curvature to width
ratio for the bend
WES (US Army):
Vtoe/Vavg= 1.75 – 0.5 log (Rc/w)
Bend scour depth prediction-empirical method
(Thorne, 1988, 1995)

All meanders:
dmax/dbar= 2.07 – 0.19 log (Rc/w -2)
Revetted bends:
dmax/dbar= 2.15 – 0.27 log (Rc/w -2)
Equation for the prediction of maximum bend scour
(dmax) on the basis of the mean depth of the
approach channel at the crossing upstream of the
bend (dbar) and the bend geometry represented by
the ratio of bend radius (Rc) divided by width at the
upstream crossing (w).
57 . 2 ) ln( 36 . 0 + ÷ =
W
R
h
h
b
Maynord (US)
377 . 3 ) ln( 71 . 0 + ÷ =
W
R
h
h
b
USACE
lnx= 2.3 log x
h
b
=scour depth; h = water depth in approaching channel
Comment Steve Maynord
• Regarding bend scour, dmax and hb are the maximum water depth in
the bend, not scour depth. Dbar and h are the average or hydraulic
depth in the channel approaching the bend. I prefer using a form of
these equations I published in:
• Maynord, S.T. (1996). “Toe-Scour Estimation in Stabilized
Bendways,” ASCE Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, Vol 122, No. 8.
• Regarding the R/W limitation of 2, my recollection is that we believed
that few cases were less than 2 and that 2 was likely close to a
maximum.
• Regarding velocities, our EM 1110-2-1601, “Hydraulic Design of
Flood Control Channels” has our empirical equations for velocity in
natural and trapezoidal channel bends. I have been told that manual
can be downloaded from our website.
Steve Maynord
EM 1110-2-1601 , US Army, 1994
http://www.usace.army.mil/usace-docs/eng-manuals/em1110-2-1601/toc.htm
EM 1110-2-1601
Revetment in
bends
http://www.ctre.iastate.edu/pubs/midcon2003/ettemascour.pdf
Robert Ettema, Tatsuaki Nakato, and Marian Muste
Scour around spur
dikes/groynes
Scour at groyns, Schiereck 2002, H-04
3 / 2
0
2 . 2
|
.
|

\
|
÷
= +
b B
Q
h h
se
Eq. 4.9
Breusers/Raudkivi, 1991
h
o
= water depth
h
se
= scour depth
Q = discharge
(constant 2.2 is not dimensionless)
Expression of Ahmed for scour spur dikes as
given by Hoffmans & Verheij (Scour Manual,
1997) reads:
Scour at bridges

S f S f
c
= ÷ = ( ) ( ) ¢ ¢ ¢ or
scour around a cilinder
Or, S = f(u – u
c
)
scour around a cylinder as function
of waterdepth and diameter
Example of scour formula, Schiereck, 2001, H-04
Pier shape l/b K
S
Cylinder
Rectangular
Elliptic
-
1
3
5
2
3
5
1.0
1.2
1.1
1.0
0.85
0.8
0.6
Table Error! No text of specified style in
document..1 Shape factors for various pier
shapes

D
h
K K K
D
h
u S
s
|
.
|

\
|
=
0
tanh 2
o
not in example 4.1 ??
K
s
= shape factor
K
o
= angle of attack
K
u
= velocity factor
K
u
= velocity factor :
K
u
= 0 for u/u
c
< 0.5, K
u
= 1 for u/u
c
> 1 and K
u
= (2u/u
c
- 1) for 0.5 < u/u
c
< 1
A constant of proportionality of 2 is recommended by Breusers et al,1977, for design purposes
Schiereck, Example 4-1; cylindrical piers
• A cylindrical pier with a diameter of 5 m is located in a
river, 5 m deep, with a gravel bed, d50 = 5 mm. The flow
velocity is 1 m/s. What is the expected scour depth?
• The dimensionless diameter, d*, in the Shields-Van Rijn
graph, see figure 3.2b, is: 0.005*((1.65*9.81)/(1.33*10-
6)2)1/3 = 105. This gives ¢ = 0.05 (Note: scour refers to
sediment transport, not to damage to a bottom protection,
so, the original Shields values should be used). With an
assumed roughness of twice the median grain diameter we
find C = 18log(12*5/0.01) = 68 \m/s. From this we find a
critical velocity: uc = 68*\(1.65*0.005*0.05) = 1.38 m/s.
The velocity coefficient in equation 4.7 then becomes:
2*1/1.38-1=0.45. The scour depth becomes:
5*0.45*tanh(5/5) = 1.7 m.
• Or, with a proportionality factor of 2: h
s
= 2 x 1.7 = 3.4 m
Schields; Schiereck H-03; Fig. 3-2
Figure 3-2 Critical shear stress according to Shields - van Rijn
U
c
= C (ψ Δ d
n50
)^0.5
Bridge scour protection
Stability of protection material can be calculated based on the
assumption that the maximum shear stress and maximum flow velocity
near the cylinder are roughly equal to:
τ
max
= 4τ
undisturbed
And/or
u
max
= 2u
undisturbed

HEC-18 USA
Tere is a large number of formulas:
Example from USA:
y1 = average flow depth upstream
http://www.haestad.com/library/books/FMRAS/FloodplainOnlineBook/javascript/wwhelp/w
whimpl/common/html/wwhelp.htm?context=Floodplain_with_HEC_RAS&file=Floodplain%
20with%20HEC-RAS-22-06.html
Reference


• Title: Bridge Scour
Authors: Bruce W. Melville and Stephen E. Coleman
Specifications: Soft Cover, 572pp, ISBN 1-887201-18-1
Price: US $85
Cat No: BSR

"A comprehensive state-of-the-art treatment of scour and
bridge foundations - both a handy reference text and a
manual for the practicing bridge designer."

Revetments
- Scour
- Toe protection
Rule of thumb:
Max Scour hole = height of local wave
Depth limited :
Local wave height = 0.5 water depth
Thus, max scour depth = 0.5 water depth
Conclusions
Integrated approach:
Hydraulic aspects
Geotechnical aspects
Structural aspects
Literature
See also selected literature in lectures by Pilarczyk
http://www.unesco-
ihe.org/we/dicea/brk80/default.htm?http://www.unesco-
ihe.org/we/dicea/brk80/brk8001.htm

Dicea overview:
CLO06 Bed protection near closure works
CLO0601 Function of a bed protection
CLO0602 Stability of a bed protection
CLO0603 Length of a bed protection
CLO0604 Calculation of a scouring hole
CLO0611 Stability under current attack
CLO0613 The Knauss and TAW formula (CRESS routine 612)
CLO0616 The Shields and Pilarczyk formula (CRESS routine 611)

download RWS-Cress (English version)
download IHE-Cress (Windows version)

Also:
http://ikm.nl/rwscress/
The end
• Questiona and discussion