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Research Paper # 1

ON THE WAY TO 3G NETWORKS: “THE GPRS/EDGE CONCEPT”

Vasil P. Pribylov , Member ,IEEE, Ivan I.Rezvan

Siberia State University of Telecommunications & Informatics Email: v.pribylov@ieee.org

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Abstract
 Describe Principles and use of GPRS.  Main problems of transition towards the UMTS

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localization (allows subscribers to obtain information on their current location) 3 .5 G system allows the transmission of packet data at     moderate bit rates using random access channels within the 2G infrastructure.Introduction  Growing interest in mobile data applications lead a cause of GSM to GPRS  GPRS a 2. Mobile applications contain several characteristics that enhance the value to the customers Like mobility(constant voice & data services while on the move) immediacy (obtaining connectivity when needed. regardless of location and without a lengthy login session).

4 . they can use their existing networks and gradually assign part of their resources from circuit-switched voice services to packet-switched data services.  This allows a smooth transition from voice-only to multimedia service networks.Introduction cont….  When GSM operators start to offer GPRS services.  GPRS Protocol Stack is important as a migration step toward third-generation (3G) networks.

GPRS BACKGROUND  Enable new & existing applications onto GSM  Enhancement of GSM’s functional & QoS parameter.  GPRS shall support both connectionless & connection oriented services.  Use scarce network resources as efficiently as possible 5 .  Offer flexible service at low cost to the user.

 Three types of service request were distinguished: 1-Broadcast:A point to multipoint message sent to “all service subscribers” within an area defined by the service requester. feature rich services.GPRS BACKGROUND cont……  Required to efficiently use network resources for packet mode applications.  New mechanisms are required in order to provide highly standardized. 2-Multicast:A point to multipoint message sent to “”an identical subset of all service subscribers” within the area defined by the service requester.6 . 3-Singlecast:A point to point message sent to “a unique subscriber”.

2. 3. Packets sent from a mobile access point to a fixed network access point. Packets sent from a mobile access point to a mobile access point via the GSM operator infrastructure 7 . The flow of data shall be possible in three scenarios. 1.GPRS BACKGROUND cont……  The GPRS operator shall be responsible for transferring data between the service access points at the fixed side and at the mobile side. Packets sent from a fixed network access point to a mobile access point.

 Packet switched traffic is separated from circuit switched traffic at BSC & diverted to GPRS core network.  Data are divided into packets and then transmitted via the radio & core GPRS network.  GPRS network resources accessed only when data actually need to be transmitted between the GPRS user and the network. subscription to a network.Principles of GPRS  Users specifically need a mobile phone or terminal supporting GPRS . 8 .

initially signal passed through pre-modulation Gaussian filter for pulse-shaping.Principles of GPRS (Cont.  In GMSK . 9 .)  GPRS use GMSK modulation scheme.  Information is coded in the increase(+ve shift) or (-ve shift) of the carrier phase.

GPRS NODES 10 .

Link Layer Performance of GPRS Network  Frequency reuse factor  Error coding scheme(CS)  Data packet delay Strong channel coding: convolutional code recovers most of the transmission errors. Weak channel coding: Each RLC block carries a high payload & the whole RLC block has to be retransmitted. the effective throughput of data packets is small due to the low code rate. However . 11 .

12 .  Misuse of their resources by unauthorized persons using manipulated mobile stations.GPRS Limitations & Security Aspects  Theoretical maximum GPRS data transmission speed only when a user utilize eight timeslots without any protection.  Bandwidth available to a GPRS user is severely limited.  Eaves-dropping the information being exchanged on the radio path.

screening lists etc.  User Identity Confidentiality: User identity is not disclosed to unauthorized individuals. 13 . entities or processes.  User Information Confidentiality: the property that the user information is not made available or disclosed to unauthorised individuals.g. location. The purpose is to provide for confidentiality of user data.GPRS Limitations & Security  MS authentication: Protection of GPRS subscribers by denying intruders the ability to impersonate authorized users  Access Control: Network can support restrictions on access by or to different subscriber e. entities or processes.

mts.EXPERIMENT  experimented with the Eriksson R580m mobile phone  (using “4+1” time slots four slots in “downlink” for receiving and one slot in “uplink” for requesting the information  GPRS connection with one of Novosibirsk GPRS operators – Siberia Cellular Systems network of Russia.nsk.  web-site www.ru 14 .

Result 15 .

INTRODUCING EDGE  EDGE is an enhanced version of GPRS  using a different modulation technique. 16 . that has a spectral efficiency of 3bits/s/Hz in comparison of GMSK’s 1bit/s/Hz.  For this reason EDGE requires a hardware upgrade of the RF part in the base stations. eight-level Phase Shift Keying (8PSK).

Conclusion and Future Work  GPRS allows network operators to implement an IP-based core architecture for data applications. 17 . which continues to be used and expanded upon in 3G services for integrated voice and data applications  Speed is still not fulfilling the demand of customers.  Advancement in GPRS system will be the use of improved coding techniques.  GPRS proves to be a testing & development area for new services & application which will be used for 3G services.

 But UMTS operators can not start planning from zero  since the best solution is that the existing GSM base station sites are to be the primary sites for UMTS base stations.GPRS/EDGE acts as transition technique towards 3G & a great need of UMTS/GSM dual-mode.Conclusion and Future Work  . 18 .

vocal. http://www.sht ml.com/technology/gprs/index.  [3] ETSI TR 101.uk/PR/March2003/5070. 19 p.  [2] GSM World: GPRS Platform.3g.0.html.gsmworld.com/data_sheets/gprs1. 21 March 2003.REFERENCES  [1] GPRS Overview.0 (1998-04): “General Packet Radio Service (GPRS)”. http://www. 19 .co. http://www.  [4] Cellular System Solutions for GSM/GPRS Wireless Terminals.186 V6.htm.

Thank you 20 .