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# ELECTROMAGNETIC

WAVES

**Characteristics of electromagnetic waves :
**

ØPropagated in space ØTransversal waves ØRectilinear propagation - the movement of light waves in a straight line. ØReflection ( pemantulan ) - wave direction change after striking a reflective surface. ØRefraction ( pembiasan ) - wave direction changes due to a change in the wave's speed from entering a new medium. ØInterference ( interferensi ) - superposition of two waves that come into contact with each other. ØDiffraction ( lenturan ) - bending of waves as they interact with obstacles in their path.

INTERFERENCE ( INTERFERENSI )

Observed by Fresnell and Thomas Young

**•Interference by one tight aperture (satu celah sempit)
**

•Caused by diffraction of wave when its pass a tight aperture •Bright patterns constructive interference ( maximum )

d sinθ = (n+ ⅟2)

•Dark patterns destructive interference ( minimum )

d sinθ = n

n = 1, 2, 3, 4, ….. d = aperture width

Interference by two tight apertures

Schematic diagram of Young’s double-slit

Constructive interference occurs at point P and Q

Destructive interference occurs at R

**• Bright bands constructive interference ( maximum )
**

• •

n = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, ….. • Dark patterns destructive interference ( minimum ) n = 0,1, 2, 3, 4, ….. n = order number d = distance between two tight apertures y = distance of center bright to certain bright or dark

• • • • •

**• Interference in thin sphere
**

• Constructive interference ( maximum )

•

2nd cos θ = ( m+ ⅟2 )

• Destructive interference ( minimum )

• • • • • •

2nd cos θ = m

n = index of diffraction d = thickness of sphere θ = diffraction angle = wavelength

Seberkas

• • •

cahaya monokromatis dijatuhkan pada dua celah sempit vertikal berdekatan dengan jarak 0,01 mm. Pola interferensi yang terjadi ditangkap pada layar sejauh 20 cm dari celah. Jika diketahui jarak antara dua pita gelap pertama adalah 7,2 mm, maka panjang gelombang cahaya tersebut adalah ……… nm a. 180 b. 270 c. 360 d. 720 e. 1800 (SPMB’03)

A viewing screen is separated from a double-slit source by 1.2 m. The distance between the two slits is 0.030 mm. The second-order bright fringe (m = 2 ) is 4.5cm from the center line. (a)Determine the wavelength of the light. (b)Calculate the distance between adjacent bright fringes.

Diffraction

a. Single Slit Diffraction Maximum diffraction :

½ )λ

d sinθ = ( m – d sinθ = mλ

Minimum diffraction :

m = number of order (1, 2, 3, 4, ….. ) d = slit width θ = diffraction angle = wavelength

b. Grid Diffraction

d sinθ = mλ Minimum diffraction d sinθ = ( m + ½ )λ

Maximum diffraction

d

• •

= constant of grid or distance between two slits

N

= number of slits per cm m = number of order ( 1, 2, 3, …. ) λ = wavelength θ = diffraction angle

Resolution Power

dm = Resolution power / daya urai ( m ) λ = wavelength ( m ) D = slit or aperture width ( m ) ℓ = distance of light source from lens ( m )

POLARIZATION

Schematic diagram of an electromagnetic wave propagating at velocity c in the x direction. The electric field vibrates in the xy plane, and the magnetic field vibrates in the xz plane the resultant electromagnetic wave is a superposition of waves vibrating in many different directions.

**a. Polarization by Selective Absorption
**

Producing polarized light by using a material that transmits waves which electric fields vibrate in a plane parallel to a certain direction and that absorbs waves whose electric fields vibrate in all other directions called polaroid The intensity of the (polarized) beam transmitted through the analyzer varies as :

known as Malus’s law

•

Two polarizing sheets whose transmission axes make an angle with each other. Only a fraction of the polarized light incident on the analyzer is transmitted through it.

b. Polarization by Reflection

When an unpolarized light beam is reflected from a surface, the reflected light may be completely polarized, partially polarized, or unpolarized, depending on the angle of incidence. If the angle of incidence is 0°, the reflected beam is unpolarized.

When unpolarized light is incident on a reflecting surface, the reflected and refracted beams are

The reflected beam is completely polarized when the angle of incidence equals the polarizing angle θp , which satisfies the equation n

• the angle of incidence θ1 is varied until the angle between the reflected and refracted beams is 90° the reflected beam is completely polarized (with its electric field vector parallel to the surface), and the refracted beam is still only partially polarized. • The angle of incidence at which this polarization occurs is called the Brewster’s called polarizing angle θp law

n1 = refractive index of incident medium n2 = refractive index of refractive medium n = refractive index of refractive medium relative to

c. Polarization by Double Refraction

• In certain crystalline materials, such as calcite (kalsit) and quartz (kwarsa), the speed of light is not the same in all directions are characterized by two indices of refraction as doublerefracting materials. •

d. Polarization by Scattering

• When light is incident on any material, the electrons in the material can absorb and reradiate part of the light. • Such absorption and reradiation of light by electrons in the gas molecules that make up air is what causes sunlight reaching an observer on the Earth to be partially polarized.

**Speed of electromagnetic wave
**

vMaxwell : the speed of electromagnetic depend on :

Permeability vPermeability of magnetic ( μo ) Permitivityof vPermitivityof electric ( εo )

•

Mathematically,

μo = 4 x 10-7 Wb A-1 m-1 εo = 8.85 x 10-12 C2N-1 m-2

Propagation of electromagnetic wave

At every instant the ratio of the magnitude of the electric field to the magnitude of the magnetic field in an electromagnetic wave equals the speed

Example :

A sinusoidal electromagnetic wave of frequency 40.0 MHz travels in free space in the x direction a)Determine the wavelength and period of the wave. b)At some point and at some instant, the electric field has its maximum value of 750 N/C and is along the y axis.Calculate the magnitude and direction of the magnetic field at this position and time.

•

Solutio n:

**Energy of Electromagnetic Wave
**

The rate of flow of energy in an electromagnetic wave is described by a vector S, called the Poynting vector, which is defined by the expression

The magnitude of the Poynting vector represents power per unit area ( Js-1 m2 or Wm2 ) The direction of the vector is along the direction of wave propagation

**Intensity of Electromagnetic Wave
**

We define the intensity I of a wave to be the rate at which the energy being transported by the wave flows through a unit area A perpendicular to the direction of travel of the wave.

Propagation of electromagnetic wave

At every instant the ratio of the magnitude of the electric field to the magnitude of the magnetic field in an electromagnetic wave equals the speed

**Energy of Electromagnetic Wave
**

The rate of flow of energy in an electromagnetic wave is described by a vector S, called the Poynting vector, which is defined by the expression

The magnitude of the Poynting vector represents power per unit area ( Js-1 m2 or Wm2 ) The direction of the vector is along the direction of wave propagation

**Intensity of Electromagnetic Wave
**

We define the intensity I of a wave to be the rate at which the energy being transported by the wave flows through a unit area A perpendicular to the direction of travel of the wave.