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Chemical Vapor Deposition

including: • • .Chemical Vapor Deposition • Chemical Vapor Deposition is the formation of a non-volatile solid film on a substrate by the reaction of vapor phase chemicals (reactants) that contain the required constituents. The reactant gases are introduced into a reaction chamber and are decomposed and reacted at a heated surface to form the thin film. Microfabrication processes widely use CVD to deposit materials in various forms.

Desorption of byproducts from the surface.Steps involved in a CVD process 1. 3. 5. Adsorption of reactants on the wafer surface. 2. including chemical decomposition or reaction. 6. 7. Transport of reactants by forced convection to the deposition region. site incorporation. and other surface reactions. Transport of reactants by diffusion from the main gas stream through the boundary layer to the wafer surface. Transport of byproducts by forced convection away from the deposition region. surface migration to attachment sites (such as atomic-level ledges and kinks). 4.Surface processes. Transport of byproducts by diffusion through the boundary layer and back to the main gas stream. .

. increasing the gas velocity along the susceptor.Tilted CVD susceptor The susceptor in a horizontal epitaxial reactor is tilted so that the crosssectional area of the chamber is decreased. This compensates for both the boundary layer and depletion effects.

typically below 10−6 Pa (~10−8 torr). Most modern CVD processes are either LPCVD or UHVCVD. High growth rates can be reached using this technique. which can be generated ultrasonically. . often 10−7 Pa.[1] Reduced pressures tend to reduce unwanted gas-phase reactions and improve film uniformity across the wafer. Note that in other fields. Classified by physical characteristics of vapor: – Aerosol assisted CVD (AACVD) – A CVD process in which the precursors are transported to the substrate by means of a liquid/gas aerosol. Liquid solutions are injected in a vaporization chamber towards injectors (typically car injectors). – Low-pressure CVD (LPCVD) – CVD process at sub-atmospheric pressures. a lower division between high and ultrahigh vacuum is common. The precursor vapors are then transported to the substrate as in classical CVD process. – Ultrahigh vacuum CVD (UHVCVD) – CVD process at very low pressure. – Direct liquid injection CVD (DLICVD) – A CVD process in which the precursors are in liquid form (liquid or solid dissolved in a convenient solvent). This technique is suitable for use with non-volatile precursors.• • • Classified by operating pressure: – Atmospheric pressure CVD (APCVD) – CVD process at atmospheric pressure. This technique is suitable for use on liquid or solid precursors.

flame-based technique for depositing high-quality thin films and nanomaterials. Heating only the substrate rather than the gas or chamber walls helps reduce unwanted gas-phase reactions that can lead to particle formation.• • • • • • • • Plasma methods – Microwave plasma-assisted CVD (MPCVD) – Plasma-Enhanced CVD (PECVD) – CVD process that utilizes plasma to enhance chemical reaction rates of the precursors. this process uses a hot filament to chemically decompose the source gases. – Remote plasma-enhanced CVD (RPECVD) – Similar to PECVD except that the wafer substrate is not directly in the plasma discharge region. Rapid thermal CVD (RTCVD) – This CVD process uses heating lamps or other methods to rapidly heat the wafer substrate. Hot wire CVD (HWCVD) – also known as catalytic CVD (Cat-CVD) or hot filament CVD (HFCVD).[2] PECVD processing allows deposition at lower temperatures. Metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) – This CVD process is based on metalorganic precursors. Vapor phase epitaxy (VPE) . Removing the wafer from the plasma region allows processing temperatures down to room temperature. Combustion Chemical Vapor Deposition (CCVD) – Combustion Chemical Vapor Deposition or flame pyrolysis is an open-atmosphere. crystalline films.[3] Hybrid Physical-Chemical Vapor Deposition (HPCVD) – This process involves both chemical decomposition of precursor gas and vaporization of a solid source. Atomic layer CVD (ALCVD) – Deposits successive layers of different substances to produce layered. See Atomic layer epitaxy. which is often critical in the manufacture of semiconductors.

One way for doing this is to supply the necessary energy for the chemical reaction by ionizing the gas. thus forming a plasma. • .Plasma enhanced CVD system (PECVD) • As the thermal budget gets more and more constrained while more and more layers need to be added for multi-layer metallization. we want to come down with the temperature for the oxide ( or other) CVD processes.

Advantages of CVD processes • CVD processes are ideally suited for depositing thin layers of materials on some substrate. CVD layers always follow the contours of the substrate: They are conformal to the substrate as shown below. In contrast to some other deposition processes which we will encounter later. .

They are generally not suitable for mixtures of materials. 2.Disadvantages of CVD processes The two most important ones (and the only ones we will address here) are: 1. there simply is no suitable chemical reaction. . They are not possible for some materials.