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ES4C4/918 Optical Communication Systems
ES918/ES4C4 Optical
Communication Systems
Background to the Assignment
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Introduction
• For long distance transmission we need to
compensate for attenuation losses.

• This was initially via a optoelectronic process of
optical receiver, a regeneration and equalization
system, and an optical transmitter

• This is limited by the optical to electrical (OE) and
electrical to optical (EO) conversions.

• Hence optical amplifiers were developed.
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Concept
The idea of an optical amplifier is the same as that of an electrical amplifier, to
increase the size of the input signal.
G
P
in
G× P
in
Pump
Power

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Amplifier Types
Optical amplifiers have become near essential components in optical fibre
systems. A working knowledge of them is now extremely important in optical fibre
communications.
Several different types of optical amplifier including:
• Rare earth (erbium, neodymium, praseodymium) doped fibre amplifier
(EDFA, NDFA, PDFA)
• Semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA)
• Non-linear fibre amplifiers: Raman fibre amplifier and Brillouin fibre amplifier

EDFAs are important for point to point long haul communications
SOAs are very noisy so have struggled to find achieve mass application
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Applications
Power Amplifier
Fibre
G
Tx
Rx
G
Line Amplifier
G
Preamplifier
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Basic Concepts
 Most amplify light through stimulated emission
 Similar to a laser but without the feedback
 The gain medium must be supplied energy by a pump
to create population inversion
• Fibre amplifiers use optical pumps
• SOA’s use electrical pumps
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Energy Levels
Electrons (and holes) may occupy only a range of energy bands within materials
for quantum mechanical reasons.

Electrons normally occupy their state of lowest energy known as the ground
state.

An energy state greater than the ground state is known as an excited state.
E2
E1
Excited State
Ground State
Energy
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Photon-Electron Interactions: Spontaneous Absorption
1. Spontaneous Absorption is
when an incident photon is
absorbed in a material causing the
excitation of an electron to a higher
level, the basis of photodiode
operation. The energy of the
photon, hf, must be the same as
E2-E1
E2
E1
Left to their own devices, all materials absorb light via this
mechanism rather than emitting any light.
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Photon-Electron Interactions: Spontaneous Emission
2. Spontaneous Emission is when
an electron falls to a lower energy
level, the basis of LED action.

E2

E1

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Photon-Electron Interactions: Stimulated Emission
3. Stimulated Emission is when a
photon incident upon an electron in
a high energy level causes the
electron to fall to a lower level
generating a second photon. This is
the basis of Light Amplification by
Stimulated Emission of Radiation
(LASER) action.
E2
E1
The photon generated has the same frequency as the incident one and thus laser light is
highly monochromatic and coherent (in phase).
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Conditions for Amplification
More electrons in higher energy levels than in lower ones (population inversion) so that
stimulated emission becomes more likely that spontaneous absorption.

We need to pump electrons into excited states by either electrical or optical means.

P
u
m
p

E2
E1
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EDFA Energy Levels
Energy
E3
E1
E2
980 nm pump
1480 nm pump
1530 nm emission
Fast non-radiative transitions
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Optical Preamplifier Configuration
Weak
Input
Signal
EDFA
Filter Coupler
Pump
Laser
Isolator
Amplified
Output Signal
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EDFA –Amplified Spontaneous Emission (ASE)
There will also be spontaneous emission in the amplifier. This will get amplified as
well as the signal, producing amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) noise.
The PSD of ASE noise is nearly constant (white noise) and for an amplifier with
gain G, can be written as
Note that the assignment uses photons per bit so the ASE will be in photons per
second
( ) ( ) 1
sp ASE
÷ = G hfn f S
( ) 1
sp 0
÷ = G n N
spontaneous-emission factor
( ) 1 2 2
sp
N N N n ÷ =
excited state
atomic
population
ground state
atomic
population
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Performance Modelling
Although the noise at the receiver is not Gaussian, we can approximate it by a
Gaussian with parameters drawn from the properties of the amplifier (see later).
The BER is then given by:
The means and variances have to be derived as on the assignment sheet.
(
¸
(

¸

=
2
erfc
2
1 Q
P
e
0 1
0 1
o o
µ µ
+
÷
= Q
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Moment Generating Functions
Often, the form of the noise statistics is not easy to work with.
We can make use of the moment generating function (mgf), which is defined for a
probability function p(x) in a similar way to the Laplace transform
( ) ( )
}
·
· ÷
= dx e x p s M
sx
There are methods based on MGFs that make the calculation of error
probabilities much easier.
Also if we have the sum of two noise sources x and y the resultant pdf
is
( ) ( ) ( ) s M s M s M
Y X Y X
=
+
But for the mgfs
( ) ( ) ( ) y p x p y x p
Y X
* = +
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Getting the Moments from mgfs - mean
As you might expect, the mgf may be used to obtain moments.
{ } ( ) 0 ' M x E = = µ
( ) { } | | ( )
( ) s M
s M
ds
s M d
'
=
ln ( )
( )
µ =
'
¬
0
0
M
M
Consider the log of the mgf:
( ) ( )
|
.
|

\
|
= =
}
·
· ÷
1 0 dx x p M
( ) { } | |
µ =
=0
ln
s
ds
s M d
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Getting the Moments from mgfs - variance
( ) ( ) | |
2
0 ' 0 ' ' var M M ÷ =
{ } ( ) 0 ' '
2
M x E =
( ) { } | | ( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) { }
( ) s M
s M s M s M
s M
s M
ds
d
ds
s M d
2
2
2
2
ln
'
÷
' '
=
(
¸
(

¸
'
=
( ) ( ) ( ) { }
( )
2
2
2
0
0 0 0
o =
'
÷
' '
M
M M M
( ) { } | |
2
0
2
2
ln
o =
= s
ds
s M d
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Example: Zero mean Gaussian
Complete the square:
( )
( )
( )
}
}
}
·
· ÷
÷ ÷
·
· ÷
÷ ÷
·
· ÷
÷
=
=
=
dx e e
dx e
dx e e s M
s x s
s x
sx x
2
2
2 2 2
2 2 2
2 2
2 2
2 2
2
2
1
2
1
2
1
o o o
o o
o
o t
o t
o t
( )
2 2
2 2 2 2 2
1
o o
t
s y s
e dy e e s M = =
}
·
· ÷
÷
( )
2 2
2 : Subst o o s x y ÷ =
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Example continued…
( ) | | | |
0
2 ln
0
2
0
2 2
0
= = = =
=
=
=
s
s
s
s
ds
s d
ds
s M d
o
o
µ
Zero mean Gaussian
( ) | | | |
2
0
2
0
ln
var o
o
= =
(
¸
(

¸

=
=
=
s
s
ds
s d
ds
s M d
ds
d
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ES4C4/918 Optical Communication Systems
MGF for Optical Preamplifier
( )
{ }
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
= u
|
.
|

\
|
s N
mGs
s N
s
M m
t
0
2
0
1
exp
1
1
q
q
q
OOK system; includes polarisation too; we can reduce the ASE
(random, unpolarised) by keeping only one polarisation
Product of the optical filter
bandwidth and the bit time
Number of
photons in
the bit
Number of polarisations
Quantum efficiency
Simplified model
ignoring shot noise
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Assignment Guide (1)
We can use the mgf to get the mean and variance and then use these to
describe a Gaussian pdf to approximate the real one.
Assignment entails obtaining the Gaussian mean and variance then making
approximate calculations for the performance of the preamplifier as its
parameters vary.

One aim (a) is to prove:-
2
0 0 , 1 0 , 1
M m
N G m
t
q q µ + =
2
2
2
0
2
0 0 , 1
2
2
0 , 1
M m
N GN m
t
q q o + =
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ES4C4/918 Optical Communication Systems
Assignment Guide (2) – Hint
( )
{ }
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
= u
|
.
|

\
|
s N
mGs
s N
s
M m
t
0
2
0
1
exp
1
1
q
q
q
( ) { }
s N
mGs
s N
M m
s
t
0
0
1
1 ln
2
ln
q
q
q
÷
+ ÷ ÷ = u
Differential of a quotient
Differential of a logarithm
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Assignment Guide (3)
Follow the instructions on the sheet to complete the
other tasks from (b)-(j)

MATLAB is suggested

Also produce a one page discussion and summary of
your conclusions
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Assignment Guide (4)
Finally:-
• A one page review (excluding references) of DEVELOPMENTS in
optical amplifier MODELLING that have enhanced the modelling process
beyond that considered here (this should refer to relevant literature,
factors that are not included above and any developments in
amplifiers/communication systems themselves).


• This should comprise a literature SEARCH to find examples of improved
modelling of optical preamplifiers to address questions such as:
How does the shot noise actually impact the performance?
What other effects have been left out here?
What about different modulation schemes?
• Ten or more references would be a good effort here.
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Assignment Guide (5)

• References must be presented correctly.
• Figure/equation numbers, titles, axis labels, units etc. should be
presented correctly.
• Code (MATLAB preferred or otherwise) should be commented.

Any questions should be addressed to me early.