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• The power out put of an engine depends upon the amount of air inducted per unit time and the degree of utilization of this air , and the thermal efficiency of the engine.

Indicated engine Power IP=P*L*A*n*K/60000 ……………..(1)
Where, IP= indicated power (kW) P=indicated mean effective pressure(N/m2) L=length of stroke A= area of piston n= no of power stroke, for 2-s engine-N and for 4-s engine N/2, N= rpm K= No of cylinders

Three possible methods utilized to increase the air consumption of an engine are as follows: Increasing the piston displacement: This increases the size and weight of the engine, and introduces additional cooling problems. Running the engine at higher speeds: This results in increased mechanical friction losses and imposes greater inertia stresses on engine parts. Increasing the density of the charge: This allows a greater mass of the charge to be inducted into the same volume.

Definition The most efficient method of increasing the power of an engine is by supercharging. powered by engine power .e. i. • A Supercharger is run by the mechanical drive. . • A turbocharger uses the otherwise unused energy in the exhaust gases to drive a turbine directly connected by a co-axial shaft to a rotary compressor in the air intake system. increasing the flow of air into the engine to enable more fuel to be burnt.

COMPRESSED AIR Air inlet Fig.1 Supercharger .

Types Fig. 2 Turbocharger .

• For aircraft installations. it also enables the engine to maintain a higher power out put as altitude is increased.Need of turbocharger and super charger • For ground installations. . in addition to produce a gain in the power out put at sealevel. it is used to produce a gain in the power out put of the engine.

Working principle of a turbocharger: • A turbocharger is a small radial fan pump driven by the energy of the exhaust gases of an engine. • The compressor draws in ambient air and pumps it in to the intake manifold at increased pressure. . which is in turn used to drive the compressor. • A turbocharger consists of a turbine and a compressor on a shared shaft. • The turbine converts exhaust to rotational force. resulting in a greater mass of air entering the cylinders on each intake stroke.

Types of super charger: Based on the use of compressor • Centrifugal type • Roots type • Vane type Components of turbocharger •Air compressor •Turbine •Intercooler .

Where the turbocharger is located in the car FIG. 5 .

6 Four-stroke cycle of an SI engine equipped with a supercharger turbocharger.Thermodynamic analysis of turbocharged engine cycle 3 2 4 1 0 FIG. plotted on p-v coordinates. .

........ .......... rp =pressure ratio......(3) .. p1= pressure after compression. cp=Specific heat of air and η = turbocharger efficiency.... p0 = atmospheric pressure.. T0= atmospheric air temperature.. r = compression ratio.... V1= volume of boosted air.Net work output Wnet= work done by piston + Gas exchange work = area A + area Area A= ... Where..(2) Area B= work done by turbocharger= Wnet = Work done per unit of air mass..

p1. .T3 •Turbine exhaust gas outletP4. Illustration of the concept of a turbocharger. T2 •Turbine exhaust gas inlet. T1 •Compressor air out let. •Compressor air inlet. T4 Figure7. point2p2.Selection process of turbocharger • The concept of turbocharger is illustrated in Figure 7. point 3-p3.Point1.

(5) where ev = air-delivery ratio mat= theoretical air consumption of the engine. kg/h atm & De = engine displacement.(4) Where mat = theoretical air consumption rate. kg/h ma= actual air consumption of the engine.Terms essential for turbocharger selection Air Consumption and Air-Delivery Ratio: ……………………. kg/m3 The air-delivery ratio is the ratio of the measured over the theoretical air consumption of an engine: …………………. kg/h . rpm ρa = density of air entering compressor.. L Ne = engine speed.

(8) Where ec = compressor efficiency.• A turbocharger air delivery ratio.(7) •The temperature ratio across the compressor ……………………. . decimal.(6) …………………. as ………………. κpc. ……………………(5) •The turbine pressure ratio is defined as . κpt = p3 / p4 • Pressure ratio across the compressor..

The turbine efficiency is also always less than 1.0. ec is always less than 1. .• The compressor efficiency = ( theoretical temperature rise across the compressor)/(the actual temperature rise).0. • The turbine efficiency = ( the actual temperature drop across the turbine )/(the theoretical temperature drop).

1. Select the compressor and the point on the compressor map (see Figure 8 for an example map) at which the compressor will operate at rated load and speed of the engine. verify that the chosen power level does not require an excessive pbme. 3. it is possible to achieve .25 kg/kW h. using the desired A/F ratio of the turbocharged engine. for a well-designed engine. 2. using an achievable value for BSFC. Realistically.2 < BSFC < 0. 4. For a CI engine running on diesel fuel. Calculate mf = Pb × BSFC. 0. pbme ≤ 1250 kPa is achievable. Calculate ma = mf× (A/F). Typically. achievable power output. typically 25 < (A/F) < 32. Pb. Equations 3 through 4 can be reworked into .• The following procedure may be used in selecting a turbocharger for an engine. Select the desired.

Performance curve 9 .

Select the turbine and the operating point on the turbine map. The turbine and compressor must rotate at the same speed. The mechanical efficiency of the turbocharger ………………….5.. the turbine flow must equal the compressor flow times (1 + FA). and the turbine must supply enough power to drive the compressor while overcoming bearing friction.(9) .

(11) where τ avaiablel = characteristic value available τ required = characteristic value required u = − (k′ − 1)/k′ et = turbine efficiency. kJ/kg·K Cpt = constant-pressure specific heat of heated air. kJ/kg·K The available characteristic value depends upon the FA ratio. decimal Cpc = constant-pressure specific heat of ambient air.Equation 10 can be reworked into characteristic-value equations that incorporate the speed. and the temperature ratio across the engine. .(10) ………………. decimal em = turbocharger mechanical efficiency. flow and power constraints: ……………. the turbocharger efficiencies.


33 to 1. providing a proportionate increase in power. pressurizing the intake charge to something close to sea level pressure.000 feet above sea level. • • . which means that if you burn more air. reducing power by around 3% per 1.7:1. This is particularly useful at high altitudes: thinner air has less oxygen. you must also burn more fuel.0 bar . but a supercharger can compensate for that loss. Automotive superchargers for street use typically produce a maximum boost pressure between 0.Advantages of supercharger and turbocharger • The more increase the pressure of the intake air above the local atmospheric pressure (boost). the more power the engine produces. Engines burn air and fuel at an ideal (stoichiometric) ratio of about 14.

Disadvantages of turbocharger and supercharger • • • • • Cost and complexity Detonation Parasitic losses Space Turbo lag .

John Deere 3140 No of cylinder-6 Compression ratio.Performance evaluation of the Turbo charged Agricultural Tractor Engine Place: Agricultural Machinery Research Centre. Tractor. Massey University.8: 1 Fuel – 10% tallow ester + 90% diesel . New Zealand in 1990. Palmerston North.16.

• Using a calibrated A W Nebraska 200 p.o.t. torque and hence power was taken • Settings an injection pressure of 210 bar and fuel pump calibration to provide 51 mm3 of fuel at rated speed and full load.Experimental Setup • Monitor exhaust temperature with (Fe/ Cn thermocouple and oil sump temperature with (Cu/Cn thermocouple).o. speed. a series of steady state measurements of p. dynamometer.t. • Before each run the engine was worked under load for 10-15 min to achieve normal operating conditions. • A Campbell 21X data logger .

Experimental Conditions 1. Naturally aspirated engine 2. 1. . Power 3. Naturally aspirated + servicing and 3. In the experiment the following parameters were measured. Turbocharged engine. Exhaust gas temperature 4. Torque 2. Turbocharger Oil Temperature.

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Root’s type .Type of Compressor.Centrifugal type 2. Vane type 3. 1.

3 .FIG.

1 kW • Exhaust gas temperature: • Oil temperatures . or “lugging ability” of the tractor). which represents the torque back-up. maximum power increased from 63. rose to 21.t. The turbocharged version produced a maximum power of 77.Results and discussion: • Torque: Torque-rise percentage (from torque at maximum power at approximately 570 rev/min at the p.9% for the original naturally aspirated mode.6% after servicing.1 kW to 65.o. to maximum torque. was 18. • Power: Due to the increased torque after servicing.9 kW at 570 rev/min and remained higher throughout the working speed range. and reached 33% after turbocharging.

Conclusions: • Due to low speed of operation and less power in agricultural tractor. turbocharger is used not supercharger for more power generation and to operate it higher altitude. • Since the engine lubricating oil is subjected to high temperatures as it passes through the turbocharger the correct oil must be used as specified for turbocharged engines. • Lower engine operating temperatures result which can be beneficial. • Turbo-charging a tractor engine is an acceptable method of increasing its performance if carried out within manufacturers’ specifications. .