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Training And Development

Training is the act of increasing the knowledge and

skills of an employee for performing the job assigned to him.

Training is the formal and systematic modification of behavior through learning which occurs as a result of education, instruction, development and planned experience.
Development is any learning activity, which is directed towards future, needs rather than present needs, and which is concerned more with career growth than immediate performance.

Why Training and development?

Do not ask what will happen if we train people

and they leave? Instead ask what will happen if we do not train people and they stay on.

Poor Sanjay
One Monday morning Sanjay Nagpal, a recent recruit

from a reputed management institute in Manipal walked into the sales office at Chennai as a new sales trainee. Raghavan, the Zonal Sales Manager for a large computer hardware firm was there to greet him. Raghavan's job consisted of overseeing the work of sales officer, field executives and trainee salesmen numbering over 50 of three areas namely Chennai, Bangalore, and Trivendrum.

The sales growth of computers, parts and other office

equipment in his area was highly satisfactory, especially in recent years - thanks to the developmental initiatives taken by respective State Governments in spreading computer education in offices, schools, colleges, banks and other institutions.

Raghavan had collected several sales reports,

catalogues and pamphlets describing in detail the types of office equipment sold by the company.
After a pleasant chat about their backgrounds,

Raghavan gave Sanjay the collected material and showed him to his assigned desk.
Thereafter Raghavan excused himself and did not

Sanjay spent the whole day scanning the material and

at 5.00 pm he picked up his things and went home.

What do you think about Raghavans training

programme? What type of sale training programme would you suggest?

New hires Change of jobs (e.g., transfer, promotion) Change to jobs (e.g., new technology) Performance deficiencies detected

Objectives of Training
Prepare employees for future positions
Upgrade/ update general skills for personal growth Performance Improvement Preventing Employee Attrition Optimum Utilization of Human Resources

Increased Productivity Personal growth Improved Morale Reduced re-work and Reduced Cost Reduced Supervision Minimum possibility of Accidents Overcoming new challenges Favorable organizational climate

Time Consuming Expensive Loss of investment to organization Restricts job switching Natural Skills of employees remain unexplored

The Training process

Needs Analysis
Need Assessment/ Analysis occurs at three levels
1. Organizational Analysis 2. Task analysis 3. Individual analysis


Existing Skills Knowledge Abilities

TNA is ahelps tool to Training to identify the gap bridge the gap

Required Skills Knowledge Abilities

Need Assessment methods

Following sources can help organization to assess either there is a need for Training or not. Self-assessments Company records Customer complaints New Technology Employee grievances Interviews with managers Customer satisfaction surveys Observation

Training Methods
On Job Training - On the job training occurs when workers pick up

skills whilst working along side experienced workers at their place of work. For example this could be the actual assembly line or offices where the employee works. New workers may simply shadow or observe fellow employees to begin with and are often given instruction manuals or interactive training programs to work through
their place of work to be trained. This may take place at training agency or local college, although many larger firms also have their own training centers. Training can take the form of lectures or selfstudy and can be used to develop more general skills and knowledge that can be used in a variety of situations, e.g. management skills program.

Off Job Training - This occurs when workers are taken away from

Training methods
On Job Training
1. Apprenticeship method 2. Job instruction method 3. Coaching/understudy or Assistant to position 4. Job rotation 5. Assignment method

Training Method
Off the job training
1. Classroom instruction/Lectures 2. Case Study 3. Role play 4. management games 5. Audio visual methods 6. In basket

Training Evaluation
Assessments or tests before and after the training Interview or observation can be used before and after

although this is time-consuming and can be inconsistent Methods of assessment need to be closely related to the aims of the learning Measurement and analysis is possible and easy on a group scale Reliable, clear scoring and measurements need to be established, so as to limit the risk of inconsistent assessment Hard-copy, electronic, online or interview style assessments are all possible

Measure Training Results

ROI is a measure of the monetary benefits obtained by an

organization over a specified amount of time for a given investment in a training program. ROI can be used both to justify a planned investment and to evaluate the extent to which the desired return was achieved. ROI is calculated by making estimates or obtaining measurements of the costs and benefits associated with a training initiative. Business units can utilize this information and effectively allocate resources to improve performance and ensure organizational success. COST/BENEFIT RATIO (CBR) CBR = Total Benefits Total Cost of Training

Measure Training Results

ROI = Total Benefits Total Cost of Training

Cost of Training
According to the Society for Human Resources Management, a

common difficulty encountered in calculating ROI is determining the shelf-life of the training program. Changes influenced by technology, global competition, legal and regulatory agencies, employee turnover, and other factors make it increasingly difficult to accurately predict the training programs shelf-life.

Ranbaxy Leadership Model

The Ranbaxy Leadership Model focuses on

strengthening the leadership qualities across the organization and quite early in the individual's career. The Model prepares individuals first to deal with 'the self' and then with 'others'. As the manager matures, the model facilitates the individual to become a business leader by understanding and appreciating the multiple facets of business. Finally managers of Ranbaxy are prepared to lead and drive change - an ultimate test of a person's leadership skills

Training the Toyota way