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Global Positioning System (GPS) is Global Positioning System
the only system today able to show ones (GPS) is a satellite-based
own position on the earth any time in any navigation system developed
weather, anywhere. This paper addresses and operated by the US
this satellite based navigation system at Department of Defense. GPS
length. The different segments of GPS viz. permits land, sea and airborne
space segment, control segment, user users to determine their three-
segment are discussed. In addition, how this dimensional position, velocity
amazing system GPS works, is clearly and time. This service is
described. The various errors that degrade available to milatary and
the performance of GPS are also included. civilian user Around the clock
DIFFERENTIAL GPS, which is used to in all weather,any where in
improve the accuracy of measurements, is the world
also studied. The need, working and
implementation of DGPS are discussed at
length. Finally, the paper ends with
advanced application of GPS.
Three Segments of the GPS
Space Segment

User Segment

Control Segment

Master Station Monitor Stations
History of the GPS
 1969—Defense  1993_24TH satellite
Navigation Satellite
launched ,initial
System (DNSS) formed
operational capability
 1973—NAVSTAR Global
 1995_ full
Positioning System
developed operational capability
 1978—first 4 satellites  May 2000_military
launched accuracy available
Delta rocket launch to all users.
The GPS Constellation
Position is Based on Time
Signal leaves satellite
at time “T”

Signal is picked up by the

T+3 receiver at time “T + 3”
Distance between satellite
and receiver = “3 times the
speed of light”
How does GPS work?
 Satellite ranging
 Satellite locations
 Satellite to user distance
 Need four satellites to determine position
 Distance measurement
 Radio signal traveling at speed of light
 Measure time from satellite to user
 Low-tech simulation
 Pseudo random code
Comlex signals
Unique satillite to each satellite
All satellites use same freqency information theory
Application of GPS Technology
 Location - determining a basic position
 Navigation - getting from one location to another
 Tracking - monitoring the movement of people and
 Mapping - creating maps of the world
 Timing - bringing precise timing to the world
 private and recreation
travelling by a car , hiking, climing, biking
vehicle control
English channel tunnel
Agriculture , aviation
general and commercial , space craft
GPS Operation Jargon
 “Waypoint” or “Landmark”
 “Track” or “Heading”
 “Bearing”
 Route
 Mark
GPS/Digital Telephone
GPS Websites
 Satellite Communication- page
T.Pratt And C.W.Bostain- information on the GPS
John Wiley And Sons. constillation
 How stuff works GPS
 good everyday
 http://www.gps education language explanation Trimble GPS tutorial
news.htm flash animations
GPS Way point registry
data base of
 GPS, a satellite based  GPS can also
navigation system, thus interfaced with other
can be used to determine similar projects such
the position of an object EU’S ,GALILEO to
on earth. As discussed account for unpredictable
above, its application field applications.thus the
is vast and new GPS constellation,like
applications will continue man made stars in the
to be created as the sky ,can be used for
technology evolves. guiding and navigation.