By: Shashank Chauhan

Introduction

Fiber optics (optical fibers) are long, thin strands of very pure glass about the diameter of a human hair. They are arranged in bundles called optical cables and used to transmit light signals over long distances.

Parts of Optical Fiber
Core  Cladding  Buffer Coating

How Does an Optical Fiber Transmit Light?

Physics of Total Internal Reflection
The angle of the light is always greater than the critical angle  Cladding does not absorb any light from the core  The extent that the signal degrades depends upon the purity of the glass and the wavelength of the transmitted light

Types of Optical Fiber
   

Single mode fiber Multimode fiber Step index fibers Graded index fibers

Manufacturing
  

Making a preform glass cylinder Drawing the fibers from the preform Testing the fibers

Fiber optic data links

Wavelength Division Multiplexing

signals with different wavelengths are combined, transmitted together, and separated again.

Time Division Multiplexing
 several

optical signals are combined, transmitted together, and separated again based on different arrival times.

Fiber Optic Connectors
 Terminates

the

fibers  Connects to other fibers or transmission equipment

Advantages
Less expensive  Thinner  Higher carrying capacity  Less signal degradation  Light signals  Low power  Digital signals

 Low

power  Digital signals  Non-flammable  Flexible
 Zero

Resale Value

Disadvantages
 Fiber

optics are that the cables are expensive to install.  The termination of a fiber optics cable is complex and requires special tools.  They are more fragile than coaxial cable.

Applications
     

Carry plain old telephone service (POTS, LECs) For transmission of data Transmitting broadband signals Intelligent transportation systems In the biomedical industry Non-Communication Applications (sensors etc…)

Transmission windows

Comparison with electrical transmission
ELECTRICAL TRANSMISSION Higher Wavelength High Data carrying capacity Long Distance Between Amplifiers & Repeaters Longer Distances
Short Distance

OPTICAL FIBRE

Low Loss

Low Bandwidth

No Crosstalk

Low Material Cost Low Cost of Transmitter & receiver Cheaper

Some manufacturers of optical fibers
Furukawa  Fujikura  LG Cables  Corning  Philips-Fitel  Pirelli  TTL  Sterlite Cables

Thank you

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