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Intellectual Abilities Physical Abilities

The abilities needed to perform mental activities General Mental Ability (GMA) is a measure of overall intelligence

The capacity to do tasks demanding stamina, dexterity, strength, and similar characteristics

Number Aptitude


Verbal Comprehension

Spatial Visualization

Intellectual Ability

Perceptual Speed

Deductive Reasoning

Inductive Reasoning



Can identify physically able people without harming their wellbeing and the job

Costly to administer Requirements should be confirmed through job analysis May contain age related bias

Decreases cost related to disability, medical insurance, and other financial compensation
Decreases absenteeism

Components of learning

Involves Change

Is Relatively Permanent

Is Acquired Through Experience

Classical conditioning theory Operant conditioning theory Cognitive learning theory Social learning theory

Classical conditioning is a reflexive or automatic type of learning in which a stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke a response that was originally evoked by another stimulus

First described by Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936), Russian physiologist, in 1903, and studied in infants by John B. Watson (1878-1958)

Key Concepts:
Unconditioned stimulus (Food)
A naturally occurring phenomenon

Unconditioned response (Salivation) Conditioned stimulus (Bell)

The naturally occurring response to a natural stimulus

An artificial stimulus introduced into the situation

Conditioned response (Salivation with bell)

The response to the artificial stimulus

Reflex Involuntary response to a stimulus

Acquisition - Formation of a learned response to a conditioned stimulus through pairing with an unconditioned stimulus Extinction Elimination of cond response by removal of Ucs Spontaneous recovery - Reemergence of an extinguished conditioned response after a rest period

Conditioned reflexlearned reflex

Unconditioned reflex spontaneous reflexes (Tears, sweating etc)

Generalization - The tendency to respond to a stimulus that is similar to the conditioned stimulus
Discrimination - The ability to distinguish between different stimuli, tendency for a response to be elicited by one stimulus and not another (sometimes similar) stimulus

Greater number of pairing of Ucs ans Cs Consistent pairing Strength of Ucs Lesser gap between Ucs and Cs

Human beings are more complex than dogs Human brain can override simple conditioning

Organizational set up is too complex is utilize the concepts of classical conditioning

Operant conditioning investigates the influence of consequences on subsequent behavior. Operant conditioning investigates the learning of voluntary responses

B.F Skinner introduced the concepts of operant conditioning

It is the consequence that follows the response that influences whether the response is likely or unlikely to occur again The three-term model of operant conditioning (S--> R ->S) incorporates the concept that responses cannot occur without an environmental event (e.g., an antecedent stimulus) preceding it
There are two types of consequences, positive and negative

Shaping - Systematically reinforcing each successive step that moves an individual closer to the desired response

Key Concepts
Reinforcement is required to change behavior Some rewards are more effective than others

The timing of reinforcement affects learning speed and permanence

Positive reinforcement Providing a reward for a desired behavior (Promotion) Negative reinforcement Removing an unpleasant consequence when the desired behavior occurs (Removing extra work load) Punishment Applying an undesirable condition to eliminate an undesirable behavior ( Warning letter) Extinction Withholding reinforcement of a behavior to cause its cessation (Holding increments)

Continuous Reinforcement - A desired behavior is reinforced each time it is demonstrated Intermittent Reinforcement - A desired behavior is reinforced often enough to make the behavior worth repeating but not every time it is demonstrated

Variable Interval Rewards given at different time

Fixed Ratio - Rewards are initiated after a fixed or constant number of responses Variable Ratio Rewards given at variable amount of output

Fixed-Interval Schedule Rewards are spaced at uniform time intervals

Learning is an active process of filtering, selecting, organizing, and integrating information (Mayer)

Learning takes place when new associations are formed and they are added to the existing information base
Learning may not be manifested through behaviour

Banduras Social Learning Theory posits that people learn from one another, via observation, imitation, and modeling

It explains human behavior in terms of continuous reciprocal interaction between cognitive, behavioral, and environmental influences

Attention The model should be attended Retention Remembering the model when she / he is not available Reproduction Reproducing the image and practicing the newly learned behaviour Self-efficacy - Learner has to identify his or her ability to perform Motivation - Having a good reason to imitate, presence of positive consequences is important

Effective video clippings during training program can bring desired behaviour in the employees

Team leader can act as a role model and influence the members
Desired behaviours might be reinforced to delay extinction