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Torsion tests for joined ceramics and composites

Andrea Ventrella, Milena Salvo, Massimiliano Avalle, Monica Ferraris*


Politecnico di Torino, Italy
M.Ferraris-35th ICACC Daytona Beach , FL

shear tests on joined materials..

M.Ferraris-35th ICACC Daytona Beach , FL

M.Ferraris-35th ICACC Daytona Beach , FL

State of the art: ASTM C1469


Asymmetrical four-point bending
(joint) < 25% (ceramic) (ASTM C 1161)

CONs:
Notches are needed if the joint strength is high......

25%< (joint)<50% (ceramic) (ASTM C 1161)

withoutU-notch notches

V-notch
18x4x3 mm

M.Ferraris-35th ICACC Daytona Beach , FL

Results on C/C joined by AV199 epoxy resin:


Flessione a 3 Punti (composito) 3 point bending tests on C/C - ASTM C 1341
160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30

4 point bending test on joined C/C Flessione a 4 Punti Simmetrica (giuntati) ASTM C 1341
80
max [MPa]

max [MPa]

60 40 20 0 0 10 20 30 s [m] 40 50 60

Numero provino

Lc = 20 mm

L = 20 mm
L = 40 mm

4 point symmetrical bending strength of joined C/C is 44% the 3 point bending strength on C/C : V-notches are needed to use asymm. 4 point bending test on C/C joined by an adhesive !
M.Ferraris-35th ICACC Daytona Beach , FL

Results on SiC joined by AV199 epoxy resin:

200.00 180.00 160.00

bending =92,734

415 MPa

MPa

140.00 120.00 100.00 80.00 60.00 40.00 20.00 .00 .00 50.00 100.00 150.00 200.00 250.00 300.00 350.00
Joint thichkness

4 point symmetrical bending strength of joined SiC is 22,3% the 4 point bending strength on SiC

V-notches are needed to use asymm. 4 point bending test on SiC joined with an adhesive !
M.Ferraris-35th ICACC Daytona Beach , FL

Comparison of shear strength tests


Y Z X
A4PB Asymmetrical four-point bending test (ASTM C1469)

project involving ORNL (USA), Kyoto University (Japan) and Politecnico di Torino (Italy)

TS

TC

TT

THG

Torsion square

Torsion cylinder

Torsion Tube

Torsion hour-glass

SLO DN single lap off DLO SL M.Ferraris-35th Double notched ICACC set ASTM D905-03 Double-lap offset Single lap offset Daytona ASTM C1292-00 & C1425-99 Beach , FL

ASTM B

898

BT Brazilian test

Comparison of shear strength tests


4

Z X

18

A4PB A4PB Asymmetrical four-point bending (ASTM C1469) Asymmetrical four-point bending testtest (ASTM C1469)

10

10 10
10

o 10 i 8
10

TS
Torsion square

TC
Torsion cylinder

TT
Torsion Tube

THG
Torsion hour-glass

12
5 25 10 3 5 10

5 6
10 6 4 4

15
30 3

10

15 15

ICACCSLO DoubleM.Ferraris-35th notched ASTM C1292-00 & C1425-99 Daytona Beach , Single FL lap off set

DN

DLO
Double-lap offset

SL
Single lap offset

BT
Brazilian test

ASTM B 898

Comparison of shear strength tests


SiC , Al2O3, C/C joined by an Y adhesive Z (epoxy resin X Araldite AV 119)
10 4

18

A4PB A4PB Asymmetrical four-point bending (ASTM C1469) Asymmetrical four-point bending testtest (ASTM C1469)

the adhesive is a model joining material to obtain a large number of joined samples in reasonable time

10 10
10

o 10 i 8
10

TS
Torsion square

TC
Torsion cylinder

TT
Torsion Tube

THG
Torsion hour-glass

12
5 25 10 3 5 10

5 6
10 6 4 4

15
30 3

10

15 15

ICACCSLO DoubleM.Ferraris-35th notched ASTM C1292-00 & C1425-99 Daytona Beach , Single FL lap off set

DN

DLO
Double-lap offset

SL
Single lap offset

BT
Brazilian test

ASTM B 898

different tests give different results on identical samples PROs and CONs of each test for a specific joint must be evaluated
M. Ferraris et al.,

Single lap (SL):

Critical alignment joint/fixtures Not suitable for strong joints

Double notched (DN) :


Critical role of notches

Double lap off set (DLO)


Underestimated values

Single lap off set (SLO): Critical role of lateral fixtures


B 898:

Huge amount of material needed


Brazilian:

Shear value not straightforward


4P- Asy:

Composites: Part B 41 (2010) 182191 A. Ventrella et al., J Mater Sci (2010) 45:44014405 E. Martin et al., submitted to Materials Characterization M.Ferraris-35th ICACC (2010) Daytona Beach , FL

Notches needed, not suitable for strong joints, pure shear

test test C/C Ceramics efficiency efficiency test efficiency % (number of samples broken inside the joint / % % total number of prepared samples, %)
DN 16,29 3,30 (33,02 4,98 *) Not suitable 80%

TS

C/C

Multiplicative factor

0%

Not suitable

Ceramics
80%

0%

TC

5.4 TC19.7 19.7 5.4


SL 18.3 1.9

70% x 2.5
x 2.5

53,79.4 53,79.4 ~
45,8 3,5 ~ 322.6 ~ 52.3 6

BT SL 20.42.0 O 22,26.67 DL18.3 12.2 0.9 1.9 O (10.45 2.68 *) x 2.6

B898

SL

x 2.4 55%

29.4 7.6 25 % ~ 45,8 3,5

SLO

20.42.0 (28,002,15*)

80 %

52.3 6

75%

DLO
M.Ferraris-35th ICACC Daytona Beach , FL

12.2 0.9 85% 29.4 7.6 70% ( *) = misplaced notches for DN, misaligned fixtures for SL, fixture-sample friction for SLO

Torsion Test

Test rig for the torsion test

ASTM F73495(2006) and F1362-97(2003)

M.Ferraris-35th ICACC Daytona Beach , FL

torsion tests for joined CMC and ceramics:


M. Ferraris

M.Ferraris-35th ICACC Daytona Beach , FL

Torsion Tests on epoxy joined SiC tubes

t = ??? MPa
M.Ferraris-35th ICACC Daytona Beach , FL

Torsion Tests on epoxy joined SiC hour glasses


THG THG THG SiC SiC SiC THG SiC (Kyoto University) THG SiC =66,42 MPa =66 MPa Politecnico di Torino =67 MPa

M.Ferraris-35th ICACC Daytona Beach , FL

M.Ferraris-35th ICACC Daytona Beach , FL

Torsion Test: summary


THG t =66,42 MPa

t =65,11 MPa

TC t =63,8 MPa

TT t =27,3 MPa

m
M.Ferraris-35th ICACC Daytona Beach , FL

3.75 2

3.85

3.95

4.05

4.15

4.25

4.35

4.45

4.55

TC Linear fitting by y = 8,6506x - 36,412

1
THG Linear fitting by y = 5,8528x - 24,853

0 LnLn(1/(1-Fj)

-1

TC THG

-2

-3

-4

Ln(max)

M.Ferraris-35th ICACC Daytona Beach , FL

Concluding remarks:
4

Z X

18 A4PB Asymmetrical four-point bending test (ASTM C1469)

10

10 10
10

o 10 i 8
10

TS
Torsion square

TC
Torsion cylinder

TT
Torsion Tube

THG
Torsion hour-glass

12
5 25 10 3 5 10

5 6
10 6 4 4

15
30 3

10

15 15

M.Ferraris-35th ICACCSLO Double notched ASTM Daytona Beach , Single FL lap off set C1292-00 & C1425-99

DN

DLO
Double-lap offset

SL
Single lap offset

BT
Brazilian test

ASTM B 898

Thank you for your attention !


monica.ferraris@polito.it http://www.composites.polito.it

M. Salvo, V. Casalegno, S. Han, S. Rizzo, A. Ventrella, F. Smeacetto, & students

M.Ferraris-35th ICACC Daytona Beach , FL