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Welcome to Chem 223

Guangli Yang, 212-639-7310 Course Description and Grade Assignment

Lab Recitation CHEM 223RC (two exams, 250 pt)1st exam: 10/20, 2nd exam 12/08 Org. Chem. Lab. CHEM 233-LB (9 experiments, 850 pt; 10 in-lab quizzes, 100 pt; performance, 200 pt)

Lab Safety
Safety Goggles must be worn at all time in the lab. No eating and drinking in the lab. Lab Coats or inflammable clothes, no open toed shoes. NO pregnant lady allowed working in the lab.

How to get good grade of this course

1.Attend the lab RC and view the lab video. Take good note in the RC and review them when planning each experiment. 2. The pre-laboratory assignment for each experiment must be completed before coming to lab. Laboratory Notebook 1. The preliminary write-up must be in your notebook before you begin the experiment.(list of hazards and toxicities of compounds, glassware needed) 2. All data must be recorded at the time they are observed or obtained. (including weights, bp, mp, observations of physical changes, results and conclusions)

Experiment 1: Melting Point

The melting point of a substance is the temperature at which the solid phase converts to the liquid phase under 1 atmosphere of pressure. The melting point is one of a number of physical properties of a substance that is useful for characterizing (describing) and identifying the substance. The melting point indicates purity in two ways. First, the purer the material, the higher its melting point; second, the purer the material, the narrower its melting point range (< 3 degree range).

Theory of Melting Point

Impurities lower melting point:
takes less energy to disrupt crystal lattice when impurities are present melting point will be lower melting point will be broader

Theory of Melting Point

Mixed Melting Point - used to determine identity of compound:
Have unknown compound that melts at 133-135. What is the unknown?

Urea MP 133-135

How could you tell?

Cinnamic acid MP 133-135

Mixed Melting Point

Mix unknown compound with a little urea and measure melting point
+ unknown sample

If melting point is still 133-135 degrees, unknown compound was urea:

Mixed Melting Point

Mix unknown compound with a little urea and measure melting point
+ unknown sample

If melting point is lower and broader, i.e. 110-116, unknown compound was NOT urea:

Eutectic Mixture
It should be noted, however, that there is one unique mixture of two compounds, A and B, that has a lower melting point than any other mixture of the two compounds. This particular mixture is called the eutectic mixture. The melting point of the eutectic mixture is called the eutectic point. A mixture whose composition corresponds exactly to its eutectic mixture will have a relatively sharp melting point..

Melting Point of an Unknown Solid

Do one fast determination to get rough approximation of melting point Do next one slower: Go quickly to 10-15 degrees away from melting point, then lower setting. Record temperature at which solid first starts to melt (133) Record temperature at which all solid is melted (135) Report the range: 133-135 oC

General Melting Point Procedures

Preparing a melting point capillary. Loading the melting point capillary. Place a small amount of the dry sample on a watch glass, and use a stirring rod to grind the solid to a powder. Use a spatula to gather the powder into a small pile. Stick the open end of a melting point capillary into the pile to a depth of about 1 mm, then invert the capillary and tap the sealed end on the bench to make the solid to drop to the bottom (or drop the capillary tube through a long glass tube to the bench). The height of solid in the capillary should be no more than 1-2 mm.

Sample Size
The smaller sample is probably too small to properly observe the mp range. The larger sample may be too large, resulting in a mp range that is too wide and possibly high.The middle sample is about right (1-2 mm) but it is near the maximum size that should be used. Note that it is firmly packed.

General Melting Point Procedures

Determination of the Melting Point Using a Mel-Temp
Load your capillary as above and place it into one of the 3 sample Wells of the Mel-Temp. Turn the Mel-Temp power switch on and choose a voltage setting, using the following table as a guide.

Voltage dial setting 10 20 30 40 50 60 70

Maximum T, oC

40-50 60-70 90-100 120-130 165-175 210-220 265-275

What You May See

This is a sample of Ibuprophen isolated from commercial tablets. Tiny droplets appear at the start of the melting point range. Often the sample appears to SHRINK away from the sides of the tube. Here, as shown in the inset (YELLOW BOX), the sample has started to melt just above 72.

As the temperature rises to 73 the liquid phase becomes clearly visible.


At 74 there is slushy mixture of crystals and liquid.

Finally at a temperature of 75, all of the solid has melted and a clear liquid remains. The melting point is reported as 72-75( remember: record MP as a range)

Cautions about Experiment 1

Toxicity of organic compounds Dont get burned by the heating instrument Be careful about use and storage of the thermometer, dont cool down the hot thermometer bulb by the running water. Stuff needed for this experiment: Thermometer Glass stopper Watch glass Capillary tube