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EXCITATION SYSTEMS

Copyright P. Kundur This material should not be used without the author's consent

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Excitation Systems
Out#ine
1. Functions and Performance
e!uirements

". E#ements of an Excitation System $. Ty%es of Excitation Systems &. Contro# and Protection Functions '. Mode#in( of Excitation Systems

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Functions and Performance e!uirements of Excitation Systems


T)e functions of an excitation system are
to %ro*ide direct current to t)e sync)ronous (enerator fie#d +indin(, and to %erform contro# and %rotecti*e functions essentia# to t)e satisfactory o%eration of t)e %o+er system

T)e %erformance re!uirements of t)e excitation system are determined -y


a. /enerator considerations0
supply and ad!ust "ield current as the generator output #aries within its continuous capability respond to transient disturbances with "ield "orcing consistent with the generator short term capabilities$

rotor insulation "ailure due to high "ield #oltage rotor heating due to high "ield current stator heating due to high %&' loading heating due to e(cess "lu( )#olts*+,-

-. Po+er system considerations0


contribute to e""ecti#e control o" system #oltage and impro#ement o" system stability

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E#ements of an Excitation System

Exciter0 %ro*ides dc %o+er to t)e (enerator fie#d +indin( Regulator0 %rocesses and am%#ifies in%ut contro# si(na#s to a #e*e# and form a%%ro%riate for contro# of t)e exciter Terminal voltage transducer and load compensator0 senses (enerator termina# *o#ta(e, rectifies and fi#ters it to dc !uantity and com%ares +it) a reference1 #oad com% may -e %ro*ided if desired to )o#d *o#ta(e at a remote %oint Power system stabilizer: %ro*ides additiona# in%ut si(na# to t)e re(u#ator to dam% %o+er system osci##ations Limiters and protective circuits0 ensure t)at t)e ca%a-i#ity #imits of exciter and (enerator are not exceeded

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Ty%es of Excitation Systems

C#assified into t)ree -road cate(ories -ased on t)e excitation %o+er source0
0 0 0 2C excitation systems AC excitation systems Static excitation systems

1. 2C Excitation Systems0
0 uti#i3e dc (enerators as source of %o+er1 dri*en -y a motor or t)e s)aft of main (enerator1 se#f or se%arate#y excited re%resent ear#y systems 415"6s to 1576s.1 #ost fa*or in t)e mid81576s -ecause of #ar(e si3e1 su%erseded -y ac exciters *o#ta(e re(u#ators ran(e from t)e ear#y non8 continuous r)eostatic ty%e to t)e #ater system usin( ma(netic rotatin( am%#ifiers

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Fi(ure 98" s)o+s a sim%#ified sc)ematic of a ty%ica# dc excitation system +it) an am%#idyne *o#ta(e re(u#ator
0 0 se#f8excited dc exciter su%%#ies current to t)e main (enerator fie#d t)rou() s#i% rin(s exciter fie#d contro##ed -y an am%#idyne +)ic) %ro*ides incrementa# c)an(es to t)e fie#d in a -uc:8-oost sc)eme t)e exciter out%ut %ro*ides rest of its o+n fie#d -y se#f8excitation

". AC Excitation Systems0


0 0 0 0 0 use ac mac)ines 4a#ternators. as source of %o+er usua##y, t)e exciter is on t)e same s)aft as t)e tur-ine8(enerator t)e ac out%ut of exciter is rectified -y eit)er contro##ed or non8contro##ed rectifiers rectifiers may -e stationary or rotatin( ear#y systems used a com-ination of ma(netic and rotatin( am%#ifiers as re(u#ators1 most ne+ systems use e#ectronic am%#ifier re(u#ators

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Fi(ure 9."0 3C e(citation system with amplidyne #oltage regulators

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".1
0 0

Stationary rectifier systems0


dc out%ut to t)e main (enerator fie#d su%%#ied t)rou() s#i% rin(s +)en non8contro##ed rectifiers are used, t)e re(u#ator contro#s t)e fie#d of t)e ac exciter1 Fi(. 9.$ s)o+s suc) a system +)ic) is re%resentati*e of /E8A;TE EX system <)en contro##ed rectifiers are used, t)e re(u#ator direct#y contro#s t)e dc out%ut *o#ta(e of t)e exciter1 Fi(. 9.& s)o+s suc) a system +)ic) is re%resentati*e of /E8A;T=Y EX system

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otatin( rectifier systems0


t)e need for s#i% rin(s and -rus)es is e#iminated1 suc) systems are ca##ed brushless excitation systems t)ey +ere de*e#o%ed to a*oid %ro-#ems +it) t)e use of -rus)es %ercei*ed to exist +)en su%%#yin( t)e )i() fie#d currents of #ar(e (enerators t)ey do not a##o+ direct measurement of (enerator fie#d current or *o#ta(e

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Fi(ure 9.$$ 6ield controlled alternator recti"ier e(citation system

Fi(ure 9.&$ &lternator supplied controlled-recti"ier e(citation system

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Fi(ure 9.'$ 9rushless e(citation system

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$. Static Excitation Systems0


0 0 0 a## com%onents are static or stationary su%%#y dc direct#y to t)e fie#d of t)e main (enerator t)rou() s#i% rin(s t)e %o+er su%%#y to t)e rectifiers is from t)e main (enerator or t)e station auxi#iary -us

$.1 Potentia#8source contro##ed rectifier system0


0 0 0 0 0 excitation %o+er is su%%#ied t)rou() a transformer from t)e main (enerator termina#s re(u#ated -y a contro##ed rectifier common#y :no+n as -us8fed or transformer8fed static excitation system *ery sma## in)erent time constant maximum exciter out%ut *o#ta(e is de%endent on in%ut ac *o#ta(e1 durin( system fau#ts t)e a*ai#a-#e cei#in( *o#ta(e is reduced

Fi(ure 9.7$ Potential-source controlled-recti"ier e(citation system


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$." Com%ound8source rectifier system0


0 0 0 0 %o+er to t)e exciter is formed -y uti#i3in( current as +e## as *o#ta(e of t)e main (enerator ac)ie*ed t)rou() a %o+er %otentia# transformer 4PPT. and a satura-#e current transformer 4SCT. t)e re(u#ator contro#s t)e exciter out%ut t)rou() contro##ed saturation of excitation transformer durin( a system fau#t, +it) de%ressed (enerator *o#ta(e, t)e current in%ut ena-#es t)e exciter to %ro*ide )i() fie#d forcin( ca%a-i#ity

An exam%#e is t)e /E SCT8PPT.

$.$ Com%ound8contro##ed rectifier system0


0 uti#i3es contro##ed rectifiers in t)e exciter out%ut circuits and t)e com%oundin( of *o#ta(e and current +it)in t)e (enerator stator resu#t is a )i() initia# res%onse static system +it) fu## >fau#t8on> forcin( ca%a-i#ity EX system.

An exam%#e is t)e /E /ENE

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Fi(. 9.?$ Compound-source recti"ier e(citation system

Fi(ure 9.9$ :E;E''E< compound-controlled recti"ier e(citation system =EEE7521 >71?


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Contro# and Protecti*e Functions

A modern excitation contro# system is muc) more t)an a sim%#e *o#ta(e re(u#ator It inc#udes a num-er of contro#, #imitin( and %rotecti*e functions +)ic) assist in fu#fi##in( t)e %erformance re!uirements identified ear#ier Fi(ure 9.1& i##ustrates t)e nature of t)ese functions and t)e manner in +)ic) t)ey interface +it) eac) ot)er
any (i*en system may inc#ude on#y some or a## of t)ese functions de%endin( on t)e s%ecific a%%#ication and t)e ty%e of exciter contro# functions re(u#ate s%ecific !uantities at t)e desired #e*e# #imitin( functions %re*ent certain !uantities from exceedin( set #imits if any of t)e #imiters fai#, t)en %rotecti*e functions remo*e a%%ro%riate com%onents or t)e unit from ser*ice

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Fi(ure 9.1&0 E(citation system control and protecti#e circuits

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AC

e(u#ator0

-asic function is to maintain (enerator stator *o#ta(e in addition, ot)er auxi#iaries act t)rou() t)e ac re(u#ator

2C

e(u#ator0

)o#ds constant (enerator fie#d *o#ta(e 4manua# contro#. used for testin( and startu%, and +)en ac re(u#ator is fau#ty

Excitation System Sta-i#i3in( Circuits0


excitation systems +it) si(nificant time de#ays )a*e %oor in)erent dynamic %erformance un#ess *ery #o+ steady8state re(u#ator (ain is used, t)e contro# action is unsta-#e +)en (enerator is on o%en8circuit series or feed-ac: com%ensation is used to im%ro*e t)e dynamic res%onse most common#y used form of com%ensation is a deri*ati*e feed-ac: 4Fi(ure 9.1'.

Fi(ure 9.1'$ 3eri#ati#e "eedbac@ e(citation control system stabili,ation


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Po+er System Sta-i#i3er 4PSS.0


uses auxi#iary sta-i#i3in( si(na#s 4suc) as s)aft s%eed, fre!uency, %o+er. to modu#ate t)e (enerator fie#d *o#ta(e so as to dam% system osci##ations

;oad Com%ensator0
used to re(u#ate a *o#ta(e at a %oint eit)er +it)in or externa# to t)e (enerator ac)ie*ed -y -ui#din( additiona# circuitry into t)e A@ #oo% 4see Fi(. 9.17. +it) C and XC %ositi*e, t)e com%ensator re(u#ates a *o#ta(e at a %oint +it)in t)e (enerator1
used to ensure proper sharing %&'s between generators bussed together at their terminals commonly used with hydro units and cross-compound thermal units

+it) C and XC ne(ati*e, t)e com%ensator re(u#ates *o#ta(e at a %oint -eyond t)e (enerator termina#s
commonly used to compensate "or #oltage drop across step-up trans"ormer when generators are connected through indi#idual trans"ormers

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Fi(ure 9.17$ Schematic diagram o" a load compensator

T)e ma(nitude of t)e resu#tin( com%ensated *o#ta(e 4 Vc., +)ic) is fed to t)e A@ , is (i*en -y

A A %c = Et + ( ' c + !< c ) = t

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Bnderexcitation ;imiter 4BE;.0


intended to %re*ent reduction of (enerator excitation to a #e*e# +)ere steady8state 4sma##8 si(na#. sta-i#ity #imit or stator core end8re(ion )eatin( #imit is exceeded contro# si(na# deri*ed from a com-ination of eit)er *o#ta(e and current or acti*e and reacti*e %o+er of t)e (enerator a +ide *ariety of forms used for im%#ementation s)ou#d -e coordinated +it) t)e #oss8of8excitation %rotection 4see Fi(ure 9.1?.

O*erexcitation ;imiter 4OX;.


%ur%ose is to %rotect t)e (enerator from o*er)eatin( due to %ro#on(ed fie#d o*ercurrent Fi(. 9.19 s)o+s t)erma# o*er#oad ca%a-i#ity of t)e fie#d +indin( OX; detects t)e )i() fie#d current condition and, after a time de#ay, acts t)rou() t)e ac re(u#ator to ram% do+n t)e excitation to a-out 116C of rated fie#d current1 if unsuccessfu#, tri%s t)e ac re(u#ator, transfers to dc re(u#ator, and re%ositions t)e set %oint corres%ondin( to rated *a#ue t+o ty%es of time de#ays used0 4a. fixed time, and 4-. in*erse time +it) in*erse time, t)e de#ay matc)es t)e t)erma# ca%a-i#ity as s)o+n in Fi(ure 9.19

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Fi(ure 9.1?$ Coordination between AEBC BDE relay and stability limit

Fi(ure 9.19$ Coordination o" o#er-e(citation limiting with "ield thermal capability
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@o#ts %er =ert3 ;imiter and Protection0


used to %rotect (enerator and ste%8u% transformer from dama(e due to excessi*e ma(netic f#ux resu#tin( from #o+ fre!uency andDor o*er*o#ta(e excessi*e ma(netic f#ux, if sustained, can cause o*er)eatin( and dama(e t)e unit transformer and t)e (enerator core Ty%ica# @D=3 #imitations0

%*+, )p.u.3amage Time in Einutes :E; <6E'

7.2/ 8.2 7.8

7.2 7.8 /.8

7.7/ 1.8 28.8

7.78 28.8

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@D=3 #imiter 4or re(u#ator. contro#s t)e fie#d *o#ta(e so as to #imit t)e (enerator *o#ta(e +)en @D=3 exceeds a %reset *a#ue @D=3 %rotection tri%s t)e (enerator +)en @D=3 exceeds t)e %reset *a#ue for a s%ecified time Note0 T)e unit ste%8u% transformer #o+ *o#ta(e ratin( is fre!uent#y 'C -e#o+ t)e (enerator *o#ta(e ratin(

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Mode#in( of Excitation Systems

2etai# of t)e mode# re!uired de%ends on t)e %ur%ose of study0


t)e contro# and %rotecti*e features t)at im%act on transient and sma##8si(na# sta-i#ity studies are t)e *o#ta(e re(u#ator, PSS and excitation contro# sta-i#i3ation t)e #imiter and %rotecti*e circuits norma##y need to -e considered on#y for #on(8term and *o#ta(e sta-i#ity studies

Per Bnit System0 Se*era# c)oices a*ai#a-#e0


a. %er unit system used for t)e main (enerator fie#d circuit
chosen to simpli"y machine eFuations but not considered suitable "or e(citer FuantitiesG under normal operating conditions "ield #oltage in the order o" 8.887 )too small-

-. %er unit system used for excitation system s%ecifications


rated load "iled #oltage as one per unit not con#enient "or system studies

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9.7." Mode#in( of Excitation System Com%onents


T)e -asic e#ements +)ic) form different ty%es of excitation systems are t)e dc exciters 4se#f or se%arate#y excited.1 ac exciters1 rectifiers 4contro##ed or non8contro##ed.1 ma(netic, rotatin(, or e#ectronic am%#ifiers1 excitation system sta-i#i3in( feed-ac: circuits1 si(na# sensin( and %rocessin( circuits Separately excited dc exciter

Fi(ure 9."7$ 9loc@ diagram o" a dc e(citer Sel !excited dc exciter T)e -#oc: dia(ram of Fi(. 9."7 a#so a%%#ies to t)e se#f8 excited dc exciter. T)e *a#ue of "E# )o+e*er, is no+ e!ua# to Re $Rg!% as com%ared to Re $Rg for t)e se%arate#y excited case. T)e station o%erators usua##y trac: t)e *o#ta(e re(u#ator -y %eriodica##y adEustin( t)e r)eostat set%oint so as to ma:e t)e *o#ta(e re(u#ator out%ut 3ero. T)is is accounted for -y se#ectin( t)e *a#ue of "E so t)at t)e initia# *a#ue of VR is e!ua# to 3ero. The parameter "E is there ore not ixed# but varies with the operating condition& ES- 2

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'( Exciter and Recti ier

Fi(ure 9."9$ 9loc@ diagram o" an ac e(citer

Fi(ure 9.$6$ 'ecti"ier regulation model

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)indup and *on!)indup Limits


e%resentation0

System e!uation0 ;imitin( action0

Fi(ure 9.$&$ )a- =ntegrator with windup limits

e%resentation0 System e!uation0 ;imitin( action0

Fi(ure 9.$&$ )b- =ntegrator with non-windup limits


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9.7.$ Mode#in( of Com%#ete Excitation Systems


Fi(ure 9.$5 de%icts t)e (enera# structure of a detai#ed excitation system mode# )a*in( a one8to8one corres%ondence +it) t)e %)ysica# e!ui%ment. <)i#e t)is mode# structure )as t)e ad*anta(e of retainin( a direct re#ations)i% -et+een mode# %arameters and %)ysica# %arameters, suc) detai# is considered too (reat for (enera# system studies. T)erefore, mode# reduction tec)ni!ues are used to sim%#ify and o-tain a %ractica# mode# a%%ro%riate for t)e ty%e of study for +)ic) it is intended. T)e %arameters of t)e reduced mode# are se#ected suc) t)at t)e (ain and %)ase c)aracteristics of t)e reduced mode# matc) t)ose of t)e detai#ed mode# o*er t)e fre!uency ran(e of 6 to $ =3. In addition, a## si(nificant non#inearities t)at im%act on system sta-i#ity are accounted for. <it) a reduced mode#, )o+e*er, direct corres%ondence -et+een t)e mode# %arameters and t)e actua# system %arameters is (enera##y #ost.

Fi(ure 9.$5$ Structure o" a detailed e(citation system model


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Standard IEEE Mode#s

IEEE )as standardi3ed 1" mode# structures for re%resentin( t)e +ide *ariety of excitation systems current#y in use 4see IEEE Standard &"1.'8155".0
t)ese mode#s are intended for use in transient and sma##8si(na# sta-i#ity studies Fi(ures 9.&6 to 9.&$ s)o+ four exam%#es

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%& Type +(%' Exciter model

Fi(ure 9.&6$ =EEE type 3C7& e(citation system model. =EEE 7557>4? T)e ty%e 2C1A exciter mode# re%resents fie#d contro##ed dc communtator exciters, +it) continuous#y actin( *o#ta(e re(u#ators. T)e exciter may -e se%arate#y excited or se#f excited, t)e #atter ty%e -ein( more common. <)en se#f excited, "E is se#ected so t)at initia##y VR-., re%resentin( o%erator action of trac:in( t)e *o#ta(e re(u#ator -y %eriodica##y trimmin( t)e s)unt fie#d r)eostat set %oint.

,& Type '(%' Exciter model

Fi(ure 9.&1$ =EEE type &C7& e(citation system model. =EEE 7557>4? T)e ty%e AC1A exciter mode# re%resents a fie#d contro##ed a#ternator excitation system +it) non8contro##ed rectifiers, a%%#ica-#e to a -rus)#ess excitation system. T)e diode rectifier c)aracteristic im%oses a #o+er #imit of 3ero on t)e exciter out%ut *o#ta(e. T)e exciter fie#d su%%#ied -y a %i#ot exciter, and t)e *o#ta(e re(u#ator %o+er su%%#y is not affected -y externa# transients.
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/& Type '(0' exciter model

Fi(ure 9.&"$ =EEE type &C.& e(citation system model =EEE 7557 >4?
T)e ty%e AC&A exciter mode# re%resents an a#ternator su%%#ied contro##ed rectifier excitation system 8 a )i() initia# res%onse excitation system 0& Type ST%' exciter model uti#i3in( fu## +a*e t)yristor -rid(e circuit. Excitation system sta-i#i3ation is usua##y %ro*ided in t)e form of a series #a(8#ead net+or: 4transient (ain reduction.. T)e time constant associated +it) t)e re(u#ator and firin( of t)yristors is re%resented -y T'. T)e o*era## (ain is re%resented -y "'& T)e rectifier o%eration is confined to mode 1 re(ion. ectifier re(u#ation effects on exciter out%ut #imits are accounted for -y constant "(.

Fi(ure 9.&$$ =EEE type ST7& e(citation system model =EEE 7557 >4?
T)e ty%e ST1A exciter mode# re%resents %otentia#8source contro##ed8rectifier systems. T)e excitation %o+er is su%%#ied t)rou() a transformer from (enerator termina#s1 t)erefore, t)e exciter cei#in( *o#ta(e is direct#y %ro%ortiona# to (enerator termina# *o#ta(e. T)e effect of rectifier re(u#ation on cei#in( *o#ta(e is re%resented -y "(. T)e mode# %ro*ides f#exi-i#ity to re%resent series #a(8#ead or rate feed-ac: sta-i#i3ation. Fecause of *ery )i() fie#d forcin( ca%a-i#ity of t)e system, a fie#d current #imiter is sometimes em%#oyed1 t)e #imit is defined -y lLR and t)e (ain -y "LR.
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Mode#in( of ;imiters

Standard mode#s do not inc#ude #imitin( circuits1 t)ese do not come into %#ay under norma# conditions T)ese are, )o+e*er, im%ortant for #on(8term and *o#ta(e sta-i#ity studies Im%#ementation of t)ese circuits *aries +ide#y
mode#s )a*e to -e esta-#is)ed on a case -y case -asis

Fi(ure 9.&? s)o+s as an exam%#e t)e mode# of a fie#d current #imiter

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4a. F#oc: dia(ram re%resentation

4-. ;imitin( c)aracteristics

Fi(ure 9.&?$ 6ield-current limiter model


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