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Feb 10, 2014

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Energy

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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(Course 25741)

CHAPTER SEVEN

INDUCTION MOTORS

SUMMARY

2. Basic Induction Motor Concepts

The Development of Induced Torque in an Induction Motor

The Concept of Rotor Slip

The Electrical Frequency on the Rotor

3. The Equivalent Circuit of an Induction Motor

The Transformer Model of an induction Motor

The Rotor Circuit Model

The Final Equivalent Circuit

4. Powers and Torque in Induction Motor

Losses and Power-Flow diagram

Power and Torque in an Induction Motor

Separating the Rotor Copper Losses and the Power Converted in an

Induction Motors Equivalent Circuit

5. Induction Motor Torque-Speed Characteristics

Induced Torque from a Physical Standpoint

The Derivation of the Induction Motor Induced-Torque Equation

Comments on the Induction Motor Torque Speed Curve

Maximum (Pullout) Torque in an Induction Motor

6. Variations in Induction Motor Toque-Speed Characteristics

Control of Motor Characteristics by Cage Rotor Design

SUMMARY

8. Speed Control of Induction Motor

Induction Motor Speed Control by Pole Changing.

Speed Control by Changing the Line Frequency.

Speed Control by Changing the Line Voltage.

Speed Control by Changing the Rotor Resistance.

9. Determining Circuit Model Parameters

The No-Load Test

The DC Test

The Locked-Rotor Test

10. Determining Circuit model parameters

No-load test/ DC test for stator resistance

Locked-Rotor test

11. Induction Generator

induction generator operating alone/ induction

Generator application

Induction motor ratings

INDUCTION MOTORS

INTRODUCTION

It was shown how amortisseur windings on a

synchronous motor could develop a starting

torque without necessity of supplying an

external field current to them

Amortisseur windings work so well that a motor

could be built without syn. motors main dc field

circuit

A machine with only amortisseur winding is

called induction machine, because the rotor

voltage is induced in rotor windings rather than

being physically connected by wires

INDUCTION MOTORS

INTRODUCTION

Cutaway diagram of typical large cage rotor

induction motor

INDUCTION MOTORS

INTRODUCTION

Sketch of Cage Rotor

INDUCTION MOTORS

INTRODUCTION

Typical wound rotors for induction motors, slip

rings & bars connecting rotor windings to slip

rings can be seen

INDUCTION MOTORS

INTRODUCTION

Cutaway of a wound-rotor induction motor

Note: brushes and slip rings are shown, also

rotor windings skewed to eliminate slot

harmonics

INDUCTION MOTORS

INTRODUCTION

Distinguishing feature: no dc field current

required to run machine

Although it is possible to use an induction

machine as either motor or generator, it has

many disadvantages as a generator & so is

rarely used as Gen.

INDUCTION MOTOR CONSTRUCTION

Same physical stator as syn. machine with

different rotor construction

There are cage rotor & wound rotor

INDUCTION MOTORS

CONSTRUCTION

A cage induction rotor consists of a series of conducting bars

laid into slots carved in face of rotor & shorted at either end by

large shorting rings

This design is referred to as a cage rotor because of

conductors arrangement on rotor

A wound rotor has a complete set of 3 phase windings that are

mirror images of windings on stator

The 3 phase of rotor windings are usually Y-connected and end

of 3 rotor wires tied to slip rings on rotor shaft

The rotor currents accessible at stator brushes, where they can

be examined & where extra resistance can be inserted into

rotor circuit

This can be used to modify torque-speed characteristic of motor

Wound rotor motors more expensive, & require more

maintenance due to wear associated with brushes & slip rings,

therefore wound motor induction motors are rarely used

CONCEPTS

Its operation is basically same as amortisseur

windings on syn. motors

Development of Induced Torque

Again a BS is developed, which is rotating counterclockwise in Figure of next slide

Speed of magnetic fields rotation is : n sync=120fe/p

voltage induced in a rotor bar:

eind=(v x B).l

v=velocity of bar relative to magnetic field

B=magnetic flux density vector

l= length of conductor in magnetic field

CONCEPTS

Development of Induced Torque

CONCEPTS

relative move of rotor w.r.t. BS result in an

induced voltage in rotor bar

Velocity of upper rotor bars w.r.t. BS is to right

Induced voltage in upper bars is out of page,

while induced voltage in the lower bars is into

page

This results in a current flow out of upper bars

& into lower bars

Since rotor assembly is inductive, peak rotor

current flow produces a rotor magnetic field B R

CONCEPTS

Induced torque in machine is:

Tind =kBR x BS

resulting torque is counterclockwise & rotor

accelerates in this direction

There is a finite upper limit on motors speed

If induction motors rotor were turning at syn. Speed,

then rotor bars would be stationary relative to B S &

there would be no induced voltage eind=0 no rotor

current & BR=0 Tind=0

Rotor will slow down, due to friction losses

An induction motor can speed up to near-syn. Speed,

however it can never reach syn. speed

CONCEPTS

Flowchart showing induction motor operation

CONCEPTS

Note: in normal operation, both BR & BS rotate

together at syn. Speed nsync while rotor itself turn at a

slower s peed

Concept of Rotor Slip

Voltage induced in rotor bar depends on relative

speed of rotor with respect to BS

Since behavior of induction motor depends on motor

voltage & current, it is more logical to talk about this

relative speed

Two terms commonly used to define relative motion of

rotor & BS , slip speed & slip

slip speed defined as difference between syn. Speed

& rotor speed

nslip=nsync-nm

CONCEPTS

In which:

nslip= slip speed of machine

nsync= speed of magnetic fields

nm= mechanical shaft speed of motor

slip is relative speed expressed on a per-unit

or percentage basis: s=nslip/nsync (x100%)

s= [nsync-nm] / nsync (x100%)

or in terms of angular velocity:

s= [sync-m] / sync (x100%)

CONCEPTS

If rotor turn at syn. speed s=0

while if rotor stationary s=1

all normal motor speeds fall somewhere

between those 2 limits

mechanical speed of rotor shaft can be

expressed in terms of syn. speed & slip

nm= (1-s)nsync or m=(1-s)sync

CONCEPTS

Electrical Frequency on Rotor

An induction motor works by inducing voltages

in rotor of machine & because of that

sometimes called rotating transformer

Like a transformer, primary (stator) induces a

voltage in secondary (rotor) but :

Unlike a transformer, secondary frequency

is not necessarily same as primary

frequency

If rotor of motor locked so that can not move,

rotor will have the same frequency as stator

CONCEPTS

on the other hand, if rotor turns at syn. Speed,

frequency on rotor will be zero

what will rotor frequency be for any arbitrary rate of

rotor rotation ?

at nm=0 r/min, rotor frequency fr=fe Hz, and slip s=1

at nm=nsyn fr=0 and slip is s=0

with any speed in between, rotor frequency is directly

proportional to difference between speed of magnetic

field nsync & speed of rotor nm

S=[nsync-nm] / nsync

rotor frequency can be expressed as :

fr=s fe

CONCEPTS

fr=[nsync-nm] / nsync . fe

since : nsync=120 fe/p

fr= (nsync-nm)p/(120fe) fe

fr= p/120 (nsync-nm)

Example: A 208 V, 10 hp, 4 pole, 60 Hz, Y

connected induction motor has a full-load slip of

5 percent

(a) what is syn. Speed of motor?

.EXAMPLE:

(b) what is rotor speed of this motor at rated

load?

(c) what is rotor frequency of this motor at rated

load?

(d) what is shaft torque of this motor at rated

load?

CONCEPTS

SOLUTION:

(a) nsync=120 fe/p=120x60/4=1800 r/min

(b) nm=(1-s) nsync =(1-0.05)(1800)=1710 r/min

(c) fr=s fe = 0.95 x 60=3 Hz

or fr=p/120 (nsync-nm)=4/120 (1800-1710)=3 Hz

(d) Tload = Pout/m=

[10 x 746]/[1710 x 2 x 1/60]= 41.7 N.m

shaft load torque in English units: Tload=5252 P/n

where T is in lb-feet , P in hp, and nm r/min

Tload=5252 x 10 / (1710) = 30.7 lb . ft

EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT OF AN

INDUCTION MOTOR

Basis of an induction motor is on induction of

voltage & current in its rotor (Transformer

Action)

equivalent circuit of an induction motor is very

similar to equivalent circuit of a transformer

induction motor is called a singly excited

machine (opposed to doubly excited syn.

machine)

since power is supplied to only stator circuit

EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT OF AN

INDUCTION MOTOR

Since an induction motor does not have an

independent field circuit, its model will not contain an

internal voltage source such as internal generated

voltage EA in a syn. Machine

The equivalent circuit of induction motor can be

derived from a knowledge of transformers and from

what already know about variation of rotor frequency

with speed in induction motors

The induction motor model developed by starting with

transformer model, and then realizing variable rotor

frequency & other induction motor effects

EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT OF AN

INDUCTION MOTOR

Transformer Model of an Induction Motor

Per-phase equivalent circuit of an induction

motor

TRANSFORMER MODEL of

INDUCTION MOTOR

As shown there is certain resistance & self inductance

in primary (stator) windings which must be

represented in equivalent circuit of machine

Stator resistance called R1 & stator leakage reactance

called X1

These appear right at input to machine model

Flux in machine is the integral of applied voltage E 1

Curve of magneto-motive force versus flux,

(magnetization curve) compared to similar curve for

power transformer (next slide)

TRANSFORMER MODEL of

INDUCTION MOTOR

Magnetization curve of induction motor

TRANSFORMER MODEL of

INDUCTION MOTOR

Note: slope of induction motors magneto-motive

force-flux curve is much shallower than curve of a

good transformer

because there is an air gap in an induction motor

which greatly increase reluctance of flux path &

therefore reduces coupling between primary &

secondary windings

Higher reluctance caused by air gap means a higher

magnetizing reactance XM in equivalent circuit will

have a much smaller value (larger susceptance BM)

than its value in an ordinary transformer

TRANSFORMER MODEL of

INDUCTION MOTOR

Primary internal stator voltage E1 coupled to

secondary ER by an ideal transformer with an

effective turns ratio aeff

Effective turns ratio aeff easy to determined for a

wound-rotor motor

ratio of conductors per phase on stator to

conductors per phase on rotor, modified by any

pitch & distribution factor differences

It is rather difficult to determine a eff clearly in

cage of a case rotor motor because there are

no distinct windings on cage rotor

TRANSFORMER MODEL of

INDUCTION MOTOR

In either case there is an effective turns ratio for motor

Voltage ER produced in rotor in turn produces a

current flow in shorted rotor (or secondary) circuit of

machine

Primary impedance & magnetization current of

induction motor are very similar to corresponding

components in a transformer equivalent circuit

Induction motor equivalent circuit differs from

transformer equivalent circuit primarily in effects of

varying rotor frequency on rotor voltage E R and

secondarily in rotor resistance RR and jXR

A voltage induced in rotor windings when 3

phase voltage applied to stator windings

The greater the relative motion between rotor &

stator magnetic fields, the greater the resulting

rotor voltage & rotor frequency

The largest relative motion occurs when rotor is

stationary, called locked-rotor or blocked-rotor

condition

So largest voltage & rotor frequency are

induced in rotor at that condition (locked rotor)

Smallest voltage (0 V) and frequency (0 Hz) occur

when rotor moves at same speed as stator magnetic

field (having no relative motion)

magnitude & frequency of induced voltage in rotor at

any speed between these extremes is proportional to

the slip of motor

If magnitude of induced rotor voltage at locked-rotor is

ER0 magnitude at any slip :

ER=s ER0

frequency of induced voltage: fr=sfe

rotor has both resistance & reactance; RR a constant

(except for ski effect) , reactance affected in a

complicated way by slip

reactance of an induction motor rotor depends

on: inductance of rotor & frequency of voltage

and current in rotor

XR=r LR = 2 fr LR (realizing : fr=sfr)

XR=2sfeLR=s XR0 (XR0:blocked-rotor reactance)

Resulted equivalent circuit of rotor:

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