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# ENERGY CONVERSION ONE

(Course 25741)

CHAPTER SEVEN
INDUCTION MOTORS

SUMMARY

## 1. Induction Motor Construction

2. Basic Induction Motor Concepts
The Development of Induced Torque in an Induction Motor
The Concept of Rotor Slip
The Electrical Frequency on the Rotor
3. The Equivalent Circuit of an Induction Motor
The Transformer Model of an induction Motor
The Rotor Circuit Model
The Final Equivalent Circuit
4. Powers and Torque in Induction Motor
Losses and Power-Flow diagram
Power and Torque in an Induction Motor
Separating the Rotor Copper Losses and the Power Converted in an
Induction Motors Equivalent Circuit
5. Induction Motor Torque-Speed Characteristics
Induced Torque from a Physical Standpoint
The Derivation of the Induction Motor Induced-Torque Equation
Comments on the Induction Motor Torque Speed Curve
Maximum (Pullout) Torque in an Induction Motor
6. Variations in Induction Motor Toque-Speed Characteristics
Control of Motor Characteristics by Cage Rotor Design

SUMMARY

## 7. Starting Induction Motors

8. Speed Control of Induction Motor
Induction Motor Speed Control by Pole Changing.
Speed Control by Changing the Line Frequency.
Speed Control by Changing the Line Voltage.
Speed Control by Changing the Rotor Resistance.
9. Determining Circuit Model Parameters
The DC Test
The Locked-Rotor Test
10. Determining Circuit model parameters
No-load test/ DC test for stator resistance
Locked-Rotor test
11. Induction Generator
induction generator operating alone/ induction
Generator application
Induction motor ratings

INDUCTION MOTORS
INTRODUCTION
It was shown how amortisseur windings on a
synchronous motor could develop a starting
torque without necessity of supplying an
external field current to them
Amortisseur windings work so well that a motor
could be built without syn. motors main dc field
circuit
A machine with only amortisseur winding is
called induction machine, because the rotor
voltage is induced in rotor windings rather than
being physically connected by wires

INDUCTION MOTORS
INTRODUCTION
Cutaway diagram of typical large cage rotor
induction motor

INDUCTION MOTORS
INTRODUCTION
Sketch of Cage Rotor

INDUCTION MOTORS
INTRODUCTION
Typical wound rotors for induction motors, slip
rings & bars connecting rotor windings to slip
rings can be seen

INDUCTION MOTORS
INTRODUCTION
Cutaway of a wound-rotor induction motor
Note: brushes and slip rings are shown, also
rotor windings skewed to eliminate slot
harmonics

INDUCTION MOTORS
INTRODUCTION
Distinguishing feature: no dc field current
required to run machine
Although it is possible to use an induction
machine as either motor or generator, it has
many disadvantages as a generator & so is
rarely used as Gen.
INDUCTION MOTOR CONSTRUCTION
Same physical stator as syn. machine with
different rotor construction
There are cage rotor & wound rotor

INDUCTION MOTORS
CONSTRUCTION
A cage induction rotor consists of a series of conducting bars
laid into slots carved in face of rotor & shorted at either end by
large shorting rings
This design is referred to as a cage rotor because of
conductors arrangement on rotor
A wound rotor has a complete set of 3 phase windings that are
mirror images of windings on stator
The 3 phase of rotor windings are usually Y-connected and end
of 3 rotor wires tied to slip rings on rotor shaft
The rotor currents accessible at stator brushes, where they can
be examined & where extra resistance can be inserted into
rotor circuit
This can be used to modify torque-speed characteristic of motor
Wound rotor motors more expensive, & require more
maintenance due to wear associated with brushes & slip rings,
therefore wound motor induction motors are rarely used

## BASIC INDUCTION MOTOR

CONCEPTS
Its operation is basically same as amortisseur
windings on syn. motors
Development of Induced Torque
Again a BS is developed, which is rotating counterclockwise in Figure of next slide
Speed of magnetic fields rotation is : n sync=120fe/p
voltage induced in a rotor bar:
eind=(v x B).l
v=velocity of bar relative to magnetic field
B=magnetic flux density vector
l= length of conductor in magnetic field

## BASIC INDUCTION MOTOR

CONCEPTS
Development of Induced Torque

## BASIC INDUCTION MOTOR

CONCEPTS
relative move of rotor w.r.t. BS result in an
induced voltage in rotor bar
Velocity of upper rotor bars w.r.t. BS is to right
Induced voltage in upper bars is out of page,
while induced voltage in the lower bars is into
page
This results in a current flow out of upper bars
& into lower bars
Since rotor assembly is inductive, peak rotor
current flow produces a rotor magnetic field B R

## BASIC INDUCTION MOTOR

CONCEPTS
Induced torque in machine is:
Tind =kBR x BS
resulting torque is counterclockwise & rotor
accelerates in this direction
There is a finite upper limit on motors speed
If induction motors rotor were turning at syn. Speed,
then rotor bars would be stationary relative to B S &
there would be no induced voltage eind=0 no rotor
current & BR=0 Tind=0
Rotor will slow down, due to friction losses
An induction motor can speed up to near-syn. Speed,
however it can never reach syn. speed

## BASIC INDUCTION MOTOR

CONCEPTS
Flowchart showing induction motor operation

## BASIC INDUCTION MOTOR

CONCEPTS
Note: in normal operation, both BR & BS rotate
together at syn. Speed nsync while rotor itself turn at a
slower s peed
Concept of Rotor Slip
Voltage induced in rotor bar depends on relative
speed of rotor with respect to BS
Since behavior of induction motor depends on motor
relative speed
Two terms commonly used to define relative motion of
rotor & BS , slip speed & slip
slip speed defined as difference between syn. Speed
& rotor speed
nslip=nsync-nm

## BASIC INDUCTION MOTOR

CONCEPTS
In which:
nslip= slip speed of machine
nsync= speed of magnetic fields
nm= mechanical shaft speed of motor
slip is relative speed expressed on a per-unit
or percentage basis: s=nslip/nsync (x100%)
s= [nsync-nm] / nsync (x100%)
or in terms of angular velocity:
s= [sync-m] / sync (x100%)

## BASIC INDUCTION MOTOR

CONCEPTS
If rotor turn at syn. speed s=0
while if rotor stationary s=1
all normal motor speeds fall somewhere
between those 2 limits
mechanical speed of rotor shaft can be
expressed in terms of syn. speed & slip
nm= (1-s)nsync or m=(1-s)sync

## BASIC INDUCTION MOTOR

CONCEPTS
Electrical Frequency on Rotor
An induction motor works by inducing voltages
in rotor of machine & because of that
sometimes called rotating transformer
Like a transformer, primary (stator) induces a
voltage in secondary (rotor) but :
Unlike a transformer, secondary frequency
is not necessarily same as primary
frequency
If rotor of motor locked so that can not move,
rotor will have the same frequency as stator

## BASIC INDUCTION MOTOR

CONCEPTS
on the other hand, if rotor turns at syn. Speed,
frequency on rotor will be zero
what will rotor frequency be for any arbitrary rate of
rotor rotation ?
at nm=0 r/min, rotor frequency fr=fe Hz, and slip s=1
at nm=nsyn fr=0 and slip is s=0
with any speed in between, rotor frequency is directly
proportional to difference between speed of magnetic
field nsync & speed of rotor nm
S=[nsync-nm] / nsync
rotor frequency can be expressed as :
fr=s fe

CONCEPTS

## alternative forms of last expression:

fr=[nsync-nm] / nsync . fe
since : nsync=120 fe/p
fr= (nsync-nm)p/(120fe) fe
fr= p/120 (nsync-nm)
Example: A 208 V, 10 hp, 4 pole, 60 Hz, Y
connected induction motor has a full-load slip of
5 percent
(a) what is syn. Speed of motor?

## BASIC INDUC. MOTOR CONCEPTS

.EXAMPLE:
(b) what is rotor speed of this motor at rated
(c) what is rotor frequency of this motor at rated
(d) what is shaft torque of this motor at rated

## BASIC INDUCTION MOTOR

CONCEPTS
SOLUTION:
(a) nsync=120 fe/p=120x60/4=1800 r/min
(b) nm=(1-s) nsync =(1-0.05)(1800)=1710 r/min
(c) fr=s fe = 0.95 x 60=3 Hz
or fr=p/120 (nsync-nm)=4/120 (1800-1710)=3 Hz
[10 x 746]/[1710 x 2 x 1/60]= 41.7 N.m
where T is in lb-feet , P in hp, and nm r/min
Tload=5252 x 10 / (1710) = 30.7 lb . ft

EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT OF AN
INDUCTION MOTOR
Basis of an induction motor is on induction of
voltage & current in its rotor (Transformer
Action)
equivalent circuit of an induction motor is very
similar to equivalent circuit of a transformer
induction motor is called a singly excited
machine (opposed to doubly excited syn.
machine)
since power is supplied to only stator circuit

EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT OF AN
INDUCTION MOTOR
Since an induction motor does not have an
independent field circuit, its model will not contain an
internal voltage source such as internal generated
voltage EA in a syn. Machine
The equivalent circuit of induction motor can be
derived from a knowledge of transformers and from
with speed in induction motors
The induction motor model developed by starting with
transformer model, and then realizing variable rotor
frequency & other induction motor effects

EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT OF AN
INDUCTION MOTOR
Transformer Model of an Induction Motor
Per-phase equivalent circuit of an induction
motor

TRANSFORMER MODEL of
INDUCTION MOTOR
As shown there is certain resistance & self inductance
in primary (stator) windings which must be
represented in equivalent circuit of machine
Stator resistance called R1 & stator leakage reactance
called X1
These appear right at input to machine model
Flux in machine is the integral of applied voltage E 1
Curve of magneto-motive force versus flux,
(magnetization curve) compared to similar curve for
power transformer (next slide)

TRANSFORMER MODEL of
INDUCTION MOTOR
Magnetization curve of induction motor

TRANSFORMER MODEL of
INDUCTION MOTOR
Note: slope of induction motors magneto-motive
force-flux curve is much shallower than curve of a
good transformer
because there is an air gap in an induction motor
which greatly increase reluctance of flux path &
therefore reduces coupling between primary &
secondary windings
Higher reluctance caused by air gap means a higher
magnetizing reactance XM in equivalent circuit will
have a much smaller value (larger susceptance BM)
than its value in an ordinary transformer

TRANSFORMER MODEL of
INDUCTION MOTOR
Primary internal stator voltage E1 coupled to
secondary ER by an ideal transformer with an
effective turns ratio aeff
Effective turns ratio aeff easy to determined for a
wound-rotor motor
ratio of conductors per phase on stator to
conductors per phase on rotor, modified by any
pitch & distribution factor differences
It is rather difficult to determine a eff clearly in
cage of a case rotor motor because there are
no distinct windings on cage rotor

TRANSFORMER MODEL of
INDUCTION MOTOR
In either case there is an effective turns ratio for motor
Voltage ER produced in rotor in turn produces a
current flow in shorted rotor (or secondary) circuit of
machine
Primary impedance & magnetization current of
induction motor are very similar to corresponding
components in a transformer equivalent circuit
Induction motor equivalent circuit differs from
transformer equivalent circuit primarily in effects of
varying rotor frequency on rotor voltage E R and
secondarily in rotor resistance RR and jXR

## ROTOR CIRCUIT MODEL

A voltage induced in rotor windings when 3
phase voltage applied to stator windings
The greater the relative motion between rotor &
stator magnetic fields, the greater the resulting
rotor voltage & rotor frequency
The largest relative motion occurs when rotor is
stationary, called locked-rotor or blocked-rotor
condition
So largest voltage & rotor frequency are
induced in rotor at that condition (locked rotor)

## ROTOR CIRCUIT MODEL

Smallest voltage (0 V) and frequency (0 Hz) occur
when rotor moves at same speed as stator magnetic
field (having no relative motion)
magnitude & frequency of induced voltage in rotor at
any speed between these extremes is proportional to
the slip of motor
If magnitude of induced rotor voltage at locked-rotor is
ER0 magnitude at any slip :
ER=s ER0
frequency of induced voltage: fr=sfe
rotor has both resistance & reactance; RR a constant
(except for ski effect) , reactance affected in a
complicated way by slip

## ROTOR CIRCUIT MODEL

reactance of an induction motor rotor depends
on: inductance of rotor & frequency of voltage
and current in rotor
XR=r LR = 2 fr LR (realizing : fr=sfr)
XR=2sfeLR=s XR0 (XR0:blocked-rotor reactance)
Resulted equivalent circuit of rotor: