PATHOGENESIS OF BACTERIAL INFECTION

JANUARY 31, 2008

PATHOGENESIS IS DUE TO:

HOST IMMUNE STATUS BACTERIA’S CHARACTERISTICS INOCULUM SIZE

KOCH’S POSTULATES
1. THE ORGANISM MUST BE FOUND IN HUMANS WITH THE INFECTIOUS DISEASE BUT NOT IN HEALTHY ONES. 2. THE ORGANISMS MUST BE FOUND IN HUMANS WITH THE INFECTIOUS DISEASE AND GRWON IN PURE CULTURE.

KOCH’S POSTULATES

3. THE ORGANISM ISOLATED IN PURE CULTURE MUST INITIATE DISEASE WHEN RE-INOCULATED INTO SUSCEPTIBLE ANIMALS. 4. THE ORGANISM SHOULD BE REISOLATED FROM THE EXPERIMENTALLY INFECTED ANIMALS.

PATHOGENESIS
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A. TRANSMISSION HORIZONTAL TYPE FROM ONE INDIVIDUAL TO ANOTHER IN THE SAME SPECIES INDIRECT(VECTORS) OR DIRECT VERTICAL TYPE FROM PARENT TO OFFSPRING

PATHOGENESIS
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droplet contact – coughing, sneezing direct physical contact - touch, sexual contact indirect contact - soil contamination, contaminated surface airborne transmission - microorganism remains in the air for long periods fecal-oral transmission - contaminated food,water sources vector borne transmission - carried by insects or other animals

PATHOGENESIS
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B. ADHERENCE AVOIDS PERISTALSIS, CILIARY ACTION, URINE FLOW ADHESIN-RECEPTOR INTERACTION E. coli: TYPE 1 FIMBRIAE BINDS TO MANNOSE-CONTAINING RECEPTORS

E.COLI FIMBRIAE

PATHOGENESIS

3. PENETRATION AND SPREAD LOCAL INFECTION SYSTEMIC INFECTION Shigella ENTERS INTESTINAL CELLS,DO NOT ENTER THE BLOODSTREAM

PATHOGENESIS
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4. SURVIVAL IN THE HOST AVOIDANCE OF PHAGOCYTOSIS CAPSULES protein A of S.aureus binds to the Fc portion of IG S. pyogenes peptidoglycan binds complement intracellular pathogens lyse the lysosomes

PATHOGENESIS

4. TISSUE INJURY EXOTOXINS ENDOTOXINS NON-SPECIFIC IMMUNITY SPECIFIC HUMORAL AND CELLMEDIATED IMMUNITY

EXOTOXINS

CLASSES OF EXOTOXINS 1. ACT ON THE EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX OF CONNECTIVE TISSUE 2. A-B TYPE TOXINS

EXOTOXINS ACTING ON THE EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX
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PROTEASES COLLAGENASES HYALURONIDASES “LOOSEN UP” TISSUE FIBERS S. aureus HAS EXFOLIATIN SCALDED SKIN SYNDROME

SCALDED SKIN SYNDROME

SSS

A-B TOXINS
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A PART : ACTIVE,ENZYMATIC PART B PART: CELL BINDING PART DIPTHERIA TOXIN B binds to the cells in the respiratory tract A is endocytosed, prevents Elongation Factor –inhibits protein synthesis

Diptheriae toxin

A-B toxin

CHOLERA TOXIN B part: binds to the cell surface A part: enters cell acts on adenylate cyclase in the cell membrane; increases ion and water secretion with decreased sodium uptake from the GIT lumen ----diarrhea

Toxins that inhibit protein biosynthesis

SHIGA TOXIN A part binds to rRNA ---inhibition of protein synthesis---death of GIT cells ----poor water absorption---diarrhea

NEUROTOXINS

TETANUS TOXIN Clostridium tetani BLOCKS GLYCINE RELEASE FROM NEURONS---BLOCKS INHIBITORY NEURONS---MUSCLE OVERACTIVITY, RIGIDITY (RIGID PARALYSIS)

NEUROTOXIN

BOTULINUM TOXIN C.botulinum MOST POISONOUS, NATURALLY OCCURING TOXIN BLOCKS ACH RELEASE---DECREASE MUSCLE CONTRACTION---FLACCID PARALYSIS

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DIPLOPIA BLURRED VISION BULBAR PARALYSIS RESPIRATORY DISTRESS DEATH

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LETHAL DOSE: 1ng/kg SPORES FOUND IN SOIL NEEDS ANAEROBIC ENVIRONMENT SPORES KILLED AT 100C TOXIN IS UNSTABLE KILLED BY COOKING AIR EXPOSURE

MEDICAL USES STRABISMUS BLEPHAROSPASM MIGRAINE HEADACHES TORTICOLLIS HYPERHYDROSIS ACHALASIA (LES)

BOTOX

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2002-FDA APPROVED 2006- MOST COMMON COSMETIC OPERATIONIN THE US

TREATMENT TRIVALENT BOTULINUM ANTITOXIN (CDC) HEPTAVALENT ANTITOXIN (US ARMY)

MEMBRANE DAMAGING TOXINS
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ACT AS DETERGENTS---DIGEST PATS OF HUMAN CELL MEMBRANES ALPHA-TOXIN OF C. PERFRINGENS GAS GANGRENE

GAS GANGRENE

ENDOTOXINS

LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE IN THE CELL ENVELOPE STIMULATE RELEASE OF CYTOKINES, ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY

ENDOTOXINS

CAUSE SEPTIC SHOCK, GRAM (-) SEPSIS HYPOTENSION DIC FEVER MASSIVE ORGAN FAILURE HARD TO REVERSE

BACTERIAL ANTIGENS CAN ELICIT HUMORAL AND CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNE RESPONSE IN THE ABSENCE OF THE LIVE ORGANISM PNEUMOCOCCAL POLYSACCHARIDE

BIOTERRORISM

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ANTHRAX BOTULISM BRUCELLOSIS SMALLPOX (VARIOLA) TULARENSIS( FRANCISELLA TULARENSIS) PLAGUE (YERSINIA PESTIS)

Bacillus anthracis direct contact inhalation of spores consumption of infected meat

ANTHRAX

Brucellosis occupational hazard respiratory/ skin lesions

SMALLPOX